attachment ; explanations ; bowlby's theory

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BOWLBY'S MONOTROPIC THEORY
VBBD
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why did he reject the learning theory of attachment?
bc he argued the same thing about just attaching to whoever feeds them and how that doesn't happen
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instead which two people's work did bowlby look @?
lorenz and halow
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and proposed what kind of explanation?
evolutionary
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that attachment was innate system that gave waht?
survival advantage
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why did he suggest imprinting and attachment evolved?
bc ensure young stay close to caregivers and this protekhs them from hazards
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- monotropy
dfgd
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why is it described a monotropic theoyr?
bc he placed gr8 emph. on child's attachment to one particular caregiver (hence mono)
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and believed what about child's attachment to this one caregiver?
different and more imprtant than others
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what did he call this person?
the 'mother'
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but what is it clear it didn't need to be?
biological mother
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what did bowlby believe about time spent w/ mother-figure?
more the better
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what two laws did he put fwd to clarify this?
law of continuity / law of accumulated separation
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what did the law of continuity state?
more constant and predictable a child's care, the better quality of attachment
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what did law of accumulated separation state?
effects of every separation from mother add up 'and the safest dose therefore is a zero dose'
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- social releasers and the critical period
dgdg
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what did bowlby suggest babies are born with?
innate 'cute' behaviours e.g smiling / cooing
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what did he call these?
social releasers
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why?
bc purpose is to activate adult attachment system
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what did bowlby recognise about attachment process?
reciprocal process
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what predisposition do both mothers and babies have?
innate predisp. to become attached
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and what triggers that response in caregivers?
social releasers
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how long was bowlby's proposed critical period?
around two years
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but what kind of period did bowlby view this more as?
sensitive period
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when is child maximally sensitive?
two
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what happens if attachmnet not formed at this time?
much harder to form attachment later
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- internal working model
dgdg
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what did bowlby propose child form of relationship with primary care giver?
mental representation
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what is this called?
internal working model
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why?
bc serves as moder for what relationships are like
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therefore has powerful effect on what?
nature of child's future relationships
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what will chid whose 1st exp is of loving rel8ionship expect of future relationships and bring to them?
all loving and reliable
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what importantly does internal working model affect child's ability to do?
be parent themselves
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what do people tend to base their parenting behavioir on?
their own exp of being parented
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what does this explain about children from dysf. families?
that they have them themselves
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EVALUATION
DGDG
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:( mixed evidence for monotropy
dfgdfg
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what did bowlby believe about first attachment?
to primary caregiver and different from later attachments
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what could child only form after this was est?
multiple attachments
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who supports this theory?
schaffer and emerson
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who found what about most babeies?
they did attach to one person 1st
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however also found sig minority that could do what?
form multiple attachments at same time
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what is also unclear about this 1st attachment?
whether it's unique
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what do studies of attachment to mother and father tend to show?
that attachment to mother is more important in predicting later behaviour
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however what could this simply mean about primary attachment?
stronger than others
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not neccessarily that it's differet in?
quality
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:) supp for social releasers
dfgdfg
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clear evidence to suggest cute infant behavoirs are intended to do what?
initiate social interaction
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and that doing so is?
important to baby
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when did brazleton et al obs mothers and babies?
in interactions
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and reported existence of?
interactional synchrony
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then extended study from observation to?
experiment
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what were primary attachment figures instructed to do?
ignore babies signals
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in bowlby's terms they were ignoring what?
social releasers
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what did babies show initially?
distress
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but when continiued ignore how did some babies respond?
cyrling up and lying motionless
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what does fact children responded so strongly support?
bowlby's ideas about sognificance of infant social behaviour in eliciting caregiving
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:) supp for internal working models
sd
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why is this idea testable?
because predicts patterns of attachement will be passed on from generation
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how many mothers did bailey et al test?
99
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with babies of how old?
1yr
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and assessed them on what?
quality of attachment to won mothers
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using what procedure?
standard interview
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what did rsrchers also assess by observation?
attachment of babies to mothers
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what was fd that mothers w/ poor attachmetns to own parents were more likely to have?
children classified poor acc 2 obs
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what idea does this support about internal working model?
being passed through families
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EVALXTRA
GGDF
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:( monotroopy socially sensitive
dfgdg
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controversial bc has major implications on?
lifestyle choices mothers make w/ young kids
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what does law of accummulated separation state about susbtantial time apart?
risks poor quality attachment that'll disadvantage child later
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what have feminists like burman pointed out this places on mothers?
burden of responsibility
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setting them up to take the blame for what?
anything that goes wrong in rest of child's life
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also pushes mother into particular lifestyle choices like?
not returning to work when child born
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was this bowlby;s intention?
no
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what did he think he was doing by emph. mothers' role?
boosting status of mother
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:( temperament may be as important as attachment
dfgdg
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what is temperament?
child's genetically imfluenced personality
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what does kagan suggest happens to some babies as result of genetic makeup?
some more anxious than othera dn some more sociable
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what may these temperamental differences explain lather better than attachment experiences?
social behavoir
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what do these researchers often accuse bowlby of?
over-emphasising importance of child's early expoeriences and quality of their attachment
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Card 2

Front

why did he reject the learning theory of attachment?

Back

bc he argued the same thing about just attaching to whoever feeds them and how that doesn't happen

Card 3

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instead which two people's work did bowlby look @?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

and proposed what kind of explanation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

that attachment was innate system that gave waht?

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