Attachment

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What is reciprocity?
How two people interact. both infant and mother respond to each other's signals and each elicits a response from the other
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What is interactional synchrony?
Mother and infant reflect both the actions and emotions of the other and do this in a co-ordinated way
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What are the 4 stages of attachment as proposed by Shaffer and Emerson?
Asocial (1st few weeks), Indiscriminate (2-7 months), Specific (7-9 months), Multiple (12 months +)
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What did Schoppe Sullivan et al say about the role of the father?
Sons are more likely to have secure attachments with their fathers
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What % and characteristics were the babies who were labelled as securely attached in Ainsworth's Strange Situation?
66%. Greeted mother happily, some avoidance of strangers, mothers were sensitive
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What % and characteristics were the babies who were labelled as insecure avoidant in Ainsworth's Strange Situation?
22%. Little contact when mother returned, Avoided stranger, mother sometimes comforted infants
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What % and characteristics were the babies who were labelled as insecure resistant?
12%. Distressed when mother left, rejected mother when she returned, had stranger anxiety, Mothers were inconsistent with their infants
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What did Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg do?
A meta-analysis of other countries who did the Stranger Situation (Japan, Sweden, GB, Netherlands, USA, Israel, Germany, China)
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What did Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg find?
Highest securely attached babies was in GB (75%). Lowest securely attached babies was in China (50%). Germany had the highest percentage of insecure avoidant babies
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What is the monotropy in Bowlby's Monotropic theory?
One particular attachment is different from all others and of central importance to the child's development
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What is the critical period in Bowlby's Monotropic Theory?
Time within which an attachment must form if it's to form at all (first 2 years of life)
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What are social releasers in Bowlby's Monotropic Theory?
Babies are born with a set of innate behaviours which encourage attention from adults (smiling, cooing, gripping)
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What is the Internal Working Model in Bowlby's Monotropic Theory?
Mental representations we all carry with us of our attachment to our primary caregiver
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What is the continuity hypothesis in Bowlby's Monotropic Theory?
Represents all other attachments in the future
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What is classical conditioning in The Cupboard Love theory?
Learning through association
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What is operant conditioning in the Cupboard Love Theory?
Learning through reinforcement and punishment
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What did Harlow's study consist of?
8 rhesus monkeys who were with a wire model which had a feeding bottle and a soft terry towelling model. They spent more time with the soft monkey and only went to the wire model when they were hungry
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What did Harlow's study show and what long term affects did it have on the monkeys?
Babies don't form attachments to the person who feeds them but the person who offers contact comfort. The monkeys were sexually abnormal as they had abnormal mating behaviour and they didn't cradle their babies
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What did Lorenz's study consist of?
Geese eggs & when they hatched the first thing they saw was Lorenz so they imprinted on him. When they were put back with their mother they continued to follow Lorenz around
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What is a disruption in Bowlby's Theory of Maternal Deprivation?
Attachment is broken during the critical period
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What is a separation in Bowlby's Theory of Maternal Deprivation?
Child isn't in the presence of the primary attachment figure- only an issue for development if the child is deprived
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What did Bowlby say will happen to children if they have a maternal deprivation?
They'd have a low IQ and an inability to feel guilt and strong emotions for others
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What did Goldfarb say about children in institutions?
Those who remain in institutions have a lower IQ than those who were fostered
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What did Rutter find when he did his study on Romanian orphans?
They had a lower head circumference and their development was affected
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What is disinhibited attachment?
Spending time in an institution and are friendly and affectionate towards people they know or strangers they just met
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What did Kerns say about securely attached infants?
They have best quality childhood friendships
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What did Myron-Wilson and Smith say about securely attached children?
They were unlikely to be involved in bullying
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What are insecure avoident children most likely to be?
Victims of bullying
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What are insecure resistant children most likely to be?
Bullies
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What did McCarthy say about securely attached adults?
They have better relationships with friends and partners
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What did Hazan and Shaver say about secure responders?
Had better and long lasting relationships whereas avoidant responders had a fear of intimacy
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What did Bailey et al say about mothers?
Mothers attachment type matched that of their mothers and their babies
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is interactional synchrony?

Back

Mother and infant reflect both the actions and emotions of the other and do this in a co-ordinated way

Card 3

Front

What are the 4 stages of attachment as proposed by Shaffer and Emerson?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Schoppe Sullivan et al say about the role of the father?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What % and characteristics were the babies who were labelled as securely attached in Ainsworth's Strange Situation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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