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  • Created by: dan.2016
  • Created on: 29-04-16 16:06
What is an attachment?
A two way, enduring emotional tie to a specific other person
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What do interactions between infant and caregiver do?
Serve to develop and maintain an attachment bond between them.
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Name the 5 interactions
Bodily contact, mimicking, caregiverease, interactional synchrony, reciprocity
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What is bodily contact?
Physical interaction between caregiver and infant
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What is mimicking?
Infants being innately able to copy caregivers facial expressions.
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What is caregiverease?
Modified voice/language, which is high pitched, song like, slow and repetitive
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What is interactional synchrony?
Infants being able to move their body in time with the caregivers spoken language.
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What is reciprocity?
Mutual behaviour due to interactions, both can provoke a repose in one another.
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What did Klaus and Kennell find ?
Mothers who had extended physical contact with their infants had stronger attachment bonds and the ability to be sensitively responsive.
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Who created the stages of attachment development?
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What is the difference between the indiscriminate phase and the discriminate?
Indiscriminate: 3-7/8 months - begin to discriminate between strangers and the familiar. Discriminate: 7/8 months onwards - Infants develop specific attachments and become distressed when separated or faced with stranger.
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What is a multiple attachment and when is it formed?
Formation of emotional bonds with more than one caregivers. 9 months onwards.
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What did Schaffer find?
Strongly attached mothers showed higher levels of sensitive responsiveness. Most infants had multiple attachments. 39% of infants prime attachments were not to the primary caregiver.
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Evaluate Schaffer's stages of attachment study
Observations - bias, social desirability, Had mundane realism - was an everyday situation, Large individual differences - casts doubt on exclusively biological.
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What are the fathers seen to be more of than a caregiver?
play mate
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What 4 factors affect the relationship between fathers and children?
Degree of sensitivity, type of attachment with own parents, marital intimacy, supportive co parenting
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How does degree of sensitivity affect a father/child relationship?
More secure attachments with more sensitive fathers
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How does type of attachment with own parents affect a father/child relationship?
Single parent fathers tend to form the same attachments they have with their own parents
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How does marital intimacy affect a father/child relationship?
The degree of intimacy a father has affects the type he will have with his children
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How does supportive co parenting affect a father/child relationship?
The amount of support a father gives to his partner affects the type of attachment he will have with his children
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What is imprinting and who studied it in geese?
A form of attachment where offspring follow the first large moving object. Lorenz
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What did Lorenz find?
Imprinting is a form of attachment, and would only occur between 4 and 25 hours. It continues as they mature and adult geese tried to mate with humans
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What did Harlow find?
Monkeys have an innate need for comfort more than food, suggesting attachments concerns emotional security rather than food When frightened, monkeys clung to sensitive mother. They preferred contact with her, ones with wire mother were distressed.
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How can you criticise animal research?
Extrapolation - results cannot be generalised - lacks ecological validity - however more ethically sound
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What is Bowlby's Monotropic theory?
The idea that infants have an inbuilt tendency to make an initial attachment with one figure, usually the mother.
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What does the theory include?
Social releases, critical period, Internal working model, continuity hypothesis.
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What is the critical period?
2 1/2 years. The time necessary to make an attachment, if not formed an infant will never attach.
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What are social releases?
Innate behaviours which infants display to stimulate interaction, eg.: smiling, crying, seeking proximity
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What is the Internal working model?
A template used which bases all future attachments dependent on the first monotropic attachment.
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What is the continuity hypothesis?
The link between early monotropic attachments and future ones.
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What are the 3 types of attachment?
A - insecure avoidant, B - secure, C - insecure resistant
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What is stranger anxiety?
Distress experienced by infants when left with strangers.
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What is separation anxiety?
Degree of distress shown when parted from an attachment figure.
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What % of each attachment type was found in Ainswoth's strange situation?
A & C - 15% and B 75%.
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Evaluate the strange situation
Unethical, lacks mundane realism, doesn't focus enough on the mother and dismisses any paternal influence, is culturally bias. However it is a paradigm, highly reliable.
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What is imposed etic?
Using techniques that are only relevant to one culture to study and/or draw conclusions about another.
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What did Van Ijzendorm find?
Highest type was B, but highest proportion of type A was found in Germany. Similar overall to Ainsworth, but bigger differences in attachment types within cultures than across cultures.
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What did McMahon find?
Attachments vary cross culturally. More natural child rearing practices result in stronger more secure attachments. Dogan culture had 0% Type A and 67% Type B.
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What is Bowlby's MDH?
Explanation of what happens when attachments are broken - long lasting negative effects.
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What is short term separation?
Temporary separations, e.g: daycare
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What is the PDD model?
P - protest, D - despair, D - detachment. Explains effect of STS.
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What is long term deprivation?
Lengthy or permanent separations, commonly to divorce, death or imprisonment of attachment figure.
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What is privation?
Never having formed an attachment bond.
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What is institutional care?
Childcare provided by orphanages and children's homes.
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What is affection less psychopathy?
An inability to show concern or affection for others.
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What attachment behaviour do institutionalised children commonly show?
Dis-inhibited - clingy attention seeking, indiscriminate sociability to adults.
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What did Rutter find?
The negative effects of institutionalisation can be reversed by loving care. Around 50% of orphans were cognitively retarded. At age 4 they showed improvements, and those adopted before 6 months were as good as the control group.
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What does research indicate about the influence of early attachments on childhood attachments?
Continuity between the two, those who do not form monotropic will not form friendship attachments with other children.
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What does research indicate about the influence of early attachments on adult attachments?
Continuity between the two, but those who do not have secure infant attachments will not always necessarily struggle to form attachments.
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Card 2


What do interactions between infant and caregiver do?


Serve to develop and maintain an attachment bond between them.

Card 3


Name the 5 interactions


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is bodily contact?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is mimicking?


Preview of the front of card 5
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