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What is attachment?
A strong long lasting emotional bond we have with a particular individual
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What are some behaviours of attachment?
Seperation distress, Proximity seeking, Reunion joy, Using them as a safe base
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What was Schaffer's study into attachment?
He studied 60 infants under 2 years old, he visited their mothers every 4 weeks finding out the childs response to separation from them and their stranger awareness
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What was Schaffer's conclusion from his study?
That there are 4 stages of attachment
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What is stage 1 and what happens here?
Pre attachment 0-6 weeks- child responds to any stimuli; inanimate and animate, starts to prefer social stimuli towards the end- smiling faces
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What is stage 2 and what happens here?
Indiscriminate attachment 6 weeks- 7 months; they become more social and enjoy human company. they distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people but can be comforted by anyone
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What is stage 3 and what happens here?
Discriminate attachment 7 months+; Child starts to show a specific attachment to a person normally their main carer
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What is stage 4 and what happens here?
Multiple attachment; Child forms multiple attachments to others such as family members, friends etc
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Conclusions of Schaffers study?
65% of infants had their specific attachment to their mothers only, 27% with their fathers too and only 3% was their fathers alone. Attachment was stronger with mothers who responded quickly and sensitively to the child's signals
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3 explanations as to why mothers are more likely to be the specific attachment?
1) Fathers spend less time with their children. 2) women have evolved to be more socially orientated and caring so have greater caring behaviour. 3) Social and cultural expectations lead to getting less involved
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What did Lamb report?
There was little relationship between the amount of time fathers spent with children and the infant-father attachment
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What did Schaffer find about the child's attachments by the 1st year?
The majority of babies had formed multiple attachments, 1/3 had formed 5 or more.
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What is learning theory?
The idea that babies become attached because their mother feeds them
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What is classical conditioning?
The child ASSOCIATES food with happy feeling; this leads to the child associating food & person feeding them with the happy feeling; then leads to the person who feeds them being associated with the happy feelings alone.
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Who studied classical conditioning?
Pavlov; used dogs with food and amount of saliva
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What is Operant conditioning?
When food is seen as being the reward/reinforcement, the child shows attachment behaviours such as proximity seeking because it is reinforced by food
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3 evaluations of learning theory?
Harlow, Schaffer & Emerson and imprinting
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What was Harlow's study?
Studied maternally deprived baby monkeys; found that they becameattached to the surrogate 'mother' who provided contact comfort and not the one that provided food alone. Therefore feeding did not lead to attachment- contradicting learning theory
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What was Schaffer & Emerson's study?
39% of children's main attachments were to family members that did not feed them- contradicting learning theory
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What was the study of imprinting?
Lorenz found it is a form of attachment in which species such as geese become bonded to the first moving object they see and this happens without feeding- feeding is instinctual
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5 stages of Bowlby's Monotropic theory of attachment?
Critical period, Social releasers, Internal working model, Monotropy, Evolution
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Bowlby's evolution theroy?
Humans have evolved to form attachments as it is a survival mechanism. Parents also have an instinct to protect their young
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Bowlby's Monotropy theory?
Children have a BIOLOGICAL need to form a special attachment to one person. This is essential for healty development
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Bowlby's Critical period theory?
There is a period in the 1st year of a child's life wen it is easier for them to form attachments
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Bowlby's Social releasers theory?
Attachments form partly because the child has innate social releasers such as smiling babbling which brings out caregiving behaviours from the carer
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Bowlby's Internal working model theory?
The child's first attachment is a template for later relationships. It is a set of BELIEFS about relationships based on the first one
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5 evaluations of Bowlby's theory?
Black & Schutte, Minnesota child/parent study, Lorenz, Harlow, Rutter
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Black and Schutte's study?
205 young adults were studied- those who recalled positive andloving early relationships with their mothers were more trusting of their parents
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The Minnesota child/parent study?
Children classified as securely attached in infancy were more socially competent, empathetic and popular
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Lorenz's study and Harlow's study showed?
Attachment has evolved
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Rutters theory that criticised Bowlby?
Children didnt have one main attachment but a number of equally important ones
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The study for measuring attachment is what?
Ainsworth's strange situation used on children aged 12-18 months to measure the type of attachment a child has towards it's caregiver- uses the child, the carer and a stranger who both leave the child at some point
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Secure attachment
65% of children, carer is a safebase, the infant plays happily, separation distress, easily comforted, clearly prefers the carer
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Insecure resistant
Clingy, Dont play confidently, very distressed at separation, difficult to comfort, may seem angry, ignore the stranger
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Insecure avoidant
Independent, plays confidently, avoids closeness from carer, little distress at seperation, dont seek comfort, may prefer stranger
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What is the carer like in a secure attachment?
Responsive, sensitive and warm
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What is the carer like in an insecure resistant attachment?
Inconsistent- sometimes caring and responsive but not always
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What is the carer like in an insecure avoidant attachment?
Unresponsive care
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are some behaviours of attachment?


Seperation distress, Proximity seeking, Reunion joy, Using them as a safe base

Card 3


What was Schaffer's study into attachment?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What was Schaffer's conclusion from his study?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is stage 1 and what happens here?


Preview of the front of card 5
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