• Created by: Tigs22
  • Created on: 12-05-18 17:10
What is attachment?
A two way emotional bond between 2 individuals
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What are 3 attachment behaviours?
Proximity, separation distress, secure-base behaviour
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What are the two caregiver-infant interactions
Reciprocity (Each person responds to a signal and elicits a response-TURNS). Interactional synchrony (temporal co-ordination of micro-level social behaviour SIMULTANEOUS COPYING)
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Studies of reciprocity
Feldman&Eidelman(2007)- babies have 'alert phases' and signal for interaction. Mums pick up on it 2/3 time. From 3 months-recprocity increases. Brazelton(1975)-dance-respond to moves
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Studies for interactional synchrony
Meltzoff&Moore(1977)-1st systematic study of it. Baby has dummy to prevent response. Adult shows it 3 facial expressions or hand gestures. Dummy taken out. RESULTS- association been baby behaviour and adult's. Babies as young as 2-3 months.
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Studies for interactional synchrony
Isabella et al(1989)- observed 30 mothers&infants - assessed level of synchrony&quality of attachment. RESULTS- high levels of synchrony=better attachment
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Positive eval of caregiver-infant intercations
Controlled observations capture fine detail (filmed). No demand characteristics- babies don't know- no social desirability effects
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Negative eval
Hard to know what is happening from baby's perspective- deliberate or not? could just be reflex. Purpose of interactions not explained. Not universal- LeVine(1994)- in Kenya not much interaction
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What did shaffer&emmerson say about ROLE OF FATHER IN ATTACHMENT?
Primary attachment figure likely to be mother. most babies attach to mum first. 75% formed attachment w/dad by 18 months
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Who did longitudinal study?
Grossman(2002)- studied link between parent's behaviour and attachment in teen years. FINDINGS- only the attachment w/mums mattered. But dad's play influenced it- SO dad's role may be play
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What about when dads are primary caregivers? (study)
They adopt mother behaviours- FEILD(1978)- filmed 4m/o babies w/caregivers. some w/primary c.g mums, some with primary c.g dads Found- no matter the gender, primary c.g spent more time holding hands, smiling e.t.c. SO- level of responsiveness is key
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Study against primary dads
Manlove(2002)- kids w/o dads are not different from normal kids. SO- dad is secondary role
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problem with this conclusion?
Socially sensitve
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Eval of role of father
1. Inconsistent findings- different researchers study different things and find diff things. Why are kids w/o dads different if they're important- McCallum&Golombok(2004)- gender doesn't matter. 3. Why arn't dads normally traition, oestron
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Eval of role of father
3. Why arn't dads normally traition, oestrogen- more nurturing
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Stages of Attachment & by who?
Schaffer&Emmerson(1964)- 60 scottish infants studied at home every month for 1 year, then again at 18mo. Mum kept diary of level of protest when- left in room, w/others, in pram outside house, outside shops, cot at night, put down, passed by.
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25-32weeks old- 50% showed separation anxiety towards specific adult (the one w/most reciprocity), 40 weeks-80% specific attachment, 30% multiple.
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What is sensitive responsiveness?
When attachments formed w/ person that respond accurately to signals
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What did they create from these results?
Stages of attachment: 1.A-social (0-2mo)-respond to anything but prefer humans. 2.Indiscriminate (2-7mo)- familiar adults preferred but accepts anyone- no anxiety. 3.Specific (7mo)- s&s anxiety, p.a.f established. 4.Multiple(7m+)- 2ndary established
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STRENGTHS of Stages of Attachment
external validity(longitudinal), non-artificial, observations by parents- no stranger anxiety, no demand characteristics
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population bias, 50 years ago-temporal validity?. Stage 1-not much observable behaviour. Cultrual bias- VanIjzendoorn: collectivist cultures, multiple attachments straight away, hard to identify multiple attachments: distressed/play mates-not attachd
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What is imprinting?
When animals follow and attach to the first moving object they see
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Imprinting animal study
Lorenz(1933)- split goose eggs into 2 halves. One hatched w/goose, other hatched w/him. FOUND- attached to who they hatched with- box test.
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What did stephan lea (1984) suggest?
instinct gives birds the concept of a mum but environment provides details- instinct to attach for survival.
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What is sexual imprinting?
acquiring a template of the characteristics of a desirable mate
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sexual imprinting study
Lorenz case study(1952)- peacock raised in reptile house- imprinted on giant tortoises- as adult directed courtship at them. Lorenz believed it was a permanent effect
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Eval of Lorenz
-lacks generalisability:not mammals. -Guiton(1966): not permanent effect- chickens imprinted on washing up gloved but learnt to mate w/chickens
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Eval of animal studies
Good- more ethical, breed fast, can be generalisable. Bad- not always generalsiable, can't talk, unethical
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Study of Privation
Harlow(1958)-16 monkeys placed in cages at birth. 2 surrogate mothers- one wire, one cloth.8 got milk from wire,8 from cloth. RESULTS-all spent more time w/cloth mum. Also explored more w/cloth mum
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Further findings-
As adults, the monkeys were all timid, aggressive, had difficulty mating, inadequate mothers, none developed normal social behaviour. Wire monkeys- most dysfunctional. HOWEVER-results reversed if put in normal environment before 90 days
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contact comfort more important than food. Early privation leads to emotional damage... but can be reversed before 90 days
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positive eval of Halow
Helps undertsandig of mother-infant attachment. Attachment not based on food. Shows importance of early relationships, generalisable, care better for animals, HOWE(1998)-helped social workers understand neglect
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ETHICS- monkeys suffered. If they are generalisable enough, we can generalise pain. Wire mother compared to iron maiden BUT- importance outweighs ethics
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What is the assumption of the Learning Theory?
Kids form attachments to who feeds them
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What is the equation for this?
Classical Conditioning: 1.UCS(food)--UCR(pleasure) 2.UCS(food)+NS(mum)--UCR(pleasure) 3.CS(mum)--CR(pleasure)
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Who suggested an alternative explanation?
Dollard&Miller(1950)-operant conditioning. Baby hungry&uncomfortable- cries. Given foos (primary reinforcer). Source of food-Mum (secondary reinforcer)-motivated to attach. Mutual reinforcement- crying is unpleasant so mum feeds it
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Eval of learning thoery
Harlow- preferred cloth mother. Schaffer&Emmerson(1964)- babies attach due to reciprocity- not food. Lorenz- geese attach before fed.
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What is the assumption of Bowlby's Evolutionary Theory?
Attachment is innate and important in evolution- keeps baby safe
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What four main principles did Bowlby suggest?
Monotropy, Social releasers, critical period, Internal working model
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What is Monotropy?
Baby attaches to one main care giver- the more time spent with them the better.
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What is the law of continuity?
The more constant&predictable the child's care is, the better the quality of attachment
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What is the law of accumulated separation?
The effects of every separation from the p.c.g add up.
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What are social releasers?
Babies have innate 'cute' behaviours that make adults want to care for them. They activate the adult's attachment system.
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What is the critical period?
between 2-2.5y/o the attachment is most active. After this time, it is very difficult for kids to form attachments
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What is the internal working model?
Infants form a mental template of their relationship with their p.c.g. This creates a model for how future relationships are supposed to be. Bad first relationships affect how they are as a parent
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Positive Eval of Bowlby' s theory
Real life application- now mums can stay w/baby in hospital. Hazen&Shaver's love quiz supports internal working model. Brazelton(1975)-interactional synchrony important (2 way)- get distressed if ignored. Lorenz supported social releasers- geese had
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Positive Eval of Bowlby' s theory
Lorenz supported social releasers- geese had innate behaviours to attach- BUT NOT GENERALSIABLE
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Negative Eval
Monotropy is socially sensitive- many mum's use nannys and may worry they they'll be p.c.g. Schaffer&Emmerson's multiple attachments against monotropy. Lamb(1987)-different roles-multiple attachments(dad's play).
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What are the behaviors that indicate good attachment in Ainworth's situation
Proximity seeking, secure base, separation&stranger anxiety, response to reunion.
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What is Ainsworth's strange situation & the date?
1969- Assesess the quality of attachment between mum&baby(in terms of security). Procedure: Child&c.g enter playroom. Child encouraged to play. Stranger enters. C.g leaves. c.g returns. stranger leaves. c.g leaves. stranger returns. c.g returns
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Type A- insecure avoidant:-20-25%. Explore, no secure base, little anxiety, don't need comfort. Type B- secure:60-75%, explore, secure base, moderate anxiety, require&accept comfort. Type C- insecure resistant-3%,don't explore, huge anxiety, resist c
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Explanation of results
Belsky&Rovine(1987)- children's attachment types due to innate temperament & parenting style (level of reciprocity)
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Positive eval of strange situation
Reliable-Main et al(1985) retested: 18m/o, then at 6- 100% still secure, 75% still insecure. High control, inter-rater reliability, reproducebale, predict later development- Ward(2006) resistant- menatl health issues. Kokkinos(2007)-bullying
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Negative eval
- artifical location, only shows attachment to mother-may vary, lacks contextual validity- may be due to circumstances,lacks temporal validity- may change over time, unethical-distress. culturebound-Takahashi-japan- babies rarely left- more anxiety
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Negative eval
imposed etic. at least one more type- disorganised
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What does cultural variations have to do with attachment?
Types of attachment may vary depending on cultural parenting techniques
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What is the study of cultural variations?
Van Izjendoorn&Kroonenberg: Metanalysis of 32 studies of strange situation in 8 diff countries-2000 kids.FINDINGS-variation between countries- secure most common(50-75%)-chinavGB, resistant least common(3-30%)GBvIsrael.
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results ...
biggest variation within USA- 46%-90% secure (150% variation)
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Positive eval
Large sample, metanalysis ethically sound, real life app- improves understanding of cultural variations
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Negative eval
strange situation's method made in UK- ethnocentric procedure, not representative of whole countries- only 1 study in china, 15 in USA.
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Explanations for differences in 3 countries
Israel- collectivist community- low anxiety. Germany- high avoidant- promote independence. Japan-rarely left- anxiety
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Italy study
Simonella(2014)-testing if old proportions match current ones. 76 12m/o's assessed w/strange sit. FINDINGS-50% secure, 36% avoidant- lower secure than before (may be due to nannies) so- cultural changed have impacts
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Korea study
Jin et al (2012)-comparing korea's proportions to others places. 87 kids assessed. FINDINGS- similar, most secure- only one avoidant. Similar to japan- similar parenting
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Eval of cultural differences
Good- large samples. Bad- samples unrepresentative: Van Izjendoorn studied countries not cultures. Assessment is bias- anglo-american method-IMPOSED ETIC. invalid resluts- not generalisable
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What is Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation
A strong attachment to a mother figure is essential for psychological, emotional and intellectual attachment. If attachment broken-long term issues like affectionless psychopathy. Believes damage is inevitable if separated for long time in critical p
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Study of intellectual development
Goldfarb(1947)- found lower IQ in kids that didn't get fostered and stayed in institutions
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What is affectionless psychopathy?
inability to experience guilt & strong emotion- associated w/criminality
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What was Bolwby's study?
44 Thieves Study- study link between a.psychopathy and maternal deprivation. 44 teen criminals- tested for a.p. families asked about long separation. control group- normal teens w/emotional problems. families also asked about separation
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Results & conclusion
14/44 thieves were 17/44 had maternal deprivation. 12 of these separated before 2y/o. Control- 2/44 maternal deprivation 0/44 CONCLUDED- maternal deprivation can cause a.p.
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Positive eval of Maternal Deprivation
Goldfarb's study. Animal study by Levy et al (2003)- separating rats caused permanent effects
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Negative eval
Suggests causality based on correlation. Self report data- bias. Researcher bias- should have done double blind. lack of control- natural ex. Koluchova(1976)-2 cezch boys isolated 18m-7y, taken in by loving parents, recovered- not inevitable.
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What could the critical period in fact be?
a sensitive period
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Study that repeated Bowlby's
Lewis(1954)- 500 teens w/maternal deprivation. Didn't cause a.p or criminality. Therefore there's other factors.
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What are the 3 Romanian Orphan Studies?
Rutter&Songua-Barke (2010), Bucharest Early Intervention Project- Zeanah et al (2005), Le Mare & Audet (2006).
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Tests what good care can make up for poor early experiences in institutions. Followed 165 romainian kids- 111 adopted before 2y/o, 54 before 4y/o. Control 52 british adopted before 6m/o. Physical, cognitive&social development tested at 4,6,15.
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At adoption- romanians behind- some mentally retarded & malnourished. Further development depended on adoption age.By 4, those before 6m/o caught up- IQ-102. After 6m- disinhibited attachment. 6m-2y=IQ 86. 2y+ =IQ 77.
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What did beckett state? (2010)
Differences same at 16y/o.
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GOOD- large sample, natural ex, real life app, control group. BAD- ungeneralisable: worst institutions in world
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Bucharest Early Intervention Project- Zeanah et al (2005)
assessed attachment in 95 kids 12-31 m/o (Strange sit). Av. spend 90% lives in institutions. Control- 50 normal kids. Looked for signs of disinhibited attachment.Findings- 74%control secure vs 19% others. 65%disorganised, 44%disinhibited vs20%control
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LeMare&Audet (2006)
assessed physical growth&health of 36 romanian kids adopted by canadians. Followed for 11 months after adoption, then at 4 & 10.5y. Compared to control. RESULTS-first 2 sets of results- Romanians behind. At 10.5y-no difference
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Positive Eval of Romanian orphanages
Rel life app- now know how to properly care for kids in institutions- KEY WORKER. Fewer extraneous variables than other orphan studied coz kids always been there- no other places.
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Negative Eval
Ungeneralisable- not typical institutions. Ethical issues- Bucharest Early Intervention- kids randomly assigned to institution or fostering- tried to avoid confouding variable of more sociable kids being picked first like in Rutter's..
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What is the influence of early attachment on later relationships?
According to the Interal Working Model, there's a positive correlation between quality of first attachment and later attachments
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What is the attachment theory?
That- Type A (avoidant) leads to emotionally closed and uninvolvement. Type B(secure) confident interactions, Type C (resistant)- controlling/argumentative
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3 minor studies supporting this
Minnisota Study (2005), Hartup et al (1993), Myron-Wilson & Smith (1998)
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Minnisota Study (2005)
Followed babies from infancy to adolescence & found continuity. Secure kids most socially competent.
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Hartup et al (1993)
Secure kids more popular at nursery-engage more. Insecure kids rely more on teachers for interaction and emotional support.
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Myron-Wilson & Smith (1998)
attachment type can predict bullying. 196 kids (7-11) in LND assessed w/questionnaires. Secure least likely to be involved. Avoidant likely to be bullies. Resistant likely to be bulies.
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What is the major study?
Hazen & Shaver's Love Quiz(1987)- see correlation between attachment type and later romantic relationships. Quiz w/2 parts: measure of attachment type, love experience. 620 replies-(14-82). FOUND- high correlation.
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Supports internal working model, but some did change.
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Eval of Early attachment influence
Evidence for continuity is mixed-Love Quiz supports it, but ZIMMERMAN(2000)-little relationship. Suggested causality based on correlation. Validity issues- self report- unconscious process. ClarkeX2(1998)- not doomed for bad relationship-bigger risk
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What are 3 attachment behaviours?


Proximity, separation distress, secure-base behaviour

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What are the two caregiver-infant interactions


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Studies of reciprocity


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Studies for interactional synchrony


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