Attachment

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Attachment
A two way process between a care-giver and an infant - An emotional tie between, for example, mother and baby. They seek each others company and want to be with that person all the time.
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Caregiver
Any person who provides car for a child, such as parent, grandparent, sibling, childminder.
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Internactional synchrony
When interacting with each other people tend to mirror each others body movement and facial expressions and also emotions e.g. if a mother waves a baby may wave back.
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Reciprocity
Responding to the action of another with a similar action. The actions elicit a response from the other partner but are not necessarily similar.
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Stranger anxiety
The distress shown by an infant when approached or held by someone who is unfamiliar.
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Contact comfort
Physical contact with a caregiver that can provide physical and emotional comfort. For example, a crying baby held by its mother will calm down due to the feeling of safety the contact provides.
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Imprinting
An innate readiness t develop a strong bond with the mother which takes place during a specific time i development, probably the first few hours after birth/hatching. If the bond is not formed then, it will probably not happen in the future.
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Classical conditioning
Learning through association. A neutral stimulus (NS) is consistently paired with an unconditional stimulus (UCS) an eventually becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS), producing a conditioned response (CR).
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Learning theory
A group of explanations which explain behaviour in terms of learning, rather than inborn tendencies or higher order thinking.
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Operant conditioning
Learning through reinforcement or punishment. If a behaviour is followed by a desirable consequence then that behaviour is more likely to occur again in the future.
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Continuity hypothesis
The idea that emotionally secure infants go on to be emotionally secure, trusting and confident adults.
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Critical period
A biologically determined period during which certain characteristics develop. Outside the time window, such development will not be possible.
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Internal working model
A mental model of the world which enables individuals to predict and control their environment. In the case of attachment, the model relates to a persons expectations about relationships.
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Monotropy
The relationship the infant has with his/her primary attachment figure is of specific significance in emotional development.
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Social releaser
A social behaviour or characteristic, such as smiling, that elicits care-giving and leads to attachment.
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Insecure-avoidant
Describes children who tend to avoid social interaction with others.
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Insecure-resistant
Describes infants who both seek and reject intimacy and social interactions.
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Secure attachment
A strong and contented attachment developing sensitive responding to the infant's needs. Infants are comfortable with social interaction and intimacy. It is related to healthy cognitive and emotional development.
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Strange situation
A controlled observation of willingness to explore, stranger anxiety, separation anxiety and reunion behaviour. It is designed to test attachment security.
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Cultural variations
The way that different groups of people vary in terms of their social practices, and the effect these practices have on development and behaviour.
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Deprivation
The loss of emotional care that is normally provided by a primary caregiver.
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Institutionalisation
The effect of institutional care, especially how time spent in an institution (e.g. orphanage) can affect the development of children. Possible effects include social, mental and physical underdevelopment. Some effects are irreversible.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Any person who provides car for a child, such as parent, grandparent, sibling, childminder.

Back

Caregiver

Card 3

Front

When interacting with each other people tend to mirror each others body movement and facial expressions and also emotions e.g. if a mother waves a baby may wave back.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Responding to the action of another with a similar action. The actions elicit a response from the other partner but are not necessarily similar.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The distress shown by an infant when approached or held by someone who is unfamiliar.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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