Atoms, Bonds and Groups Keywords

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Isotopes
Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons
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Atomic Number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
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Mass Number
Number of particles in the nucleus
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Relative Atomic Number
Mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
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Relative Atomic Mass
Is the weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
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Relative Molecular Mass
The mean weight mass of the molecule compared with one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
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Relative Formula Mass
Weighted mean mass of a formula unit compared with one twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
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Amount of Substance
Quantity whose unit is the mole chemists use 'amount of substance' as a means of counting atoms
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Avogadro Constant
number of atoms per mole of the carbon-12 isotope (6.02x10^23)
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Mole
Amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12g of the carbon-12 isotope
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Molar Mass (g/mol)
The mass per mole of substance
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Empirical Formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
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Molecule
Small group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
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Molecular Formula
The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
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Molar Volume
The volume per mole of gas (dm^3/mol) at room temperature are pressure the molar volume is approximately 24.0 dm^3/mol
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Avogadro's Hypothesis
'Equal Volume of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules'
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Concentration of a Solution
Is the amount of solute, in mol, dissolved per 1dm^3 (1000cam^3) of solution
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Standard Solution
Is a solution of a known concentration normally used in titration to determine unknown information about another substance
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The Difference between Concentrated and Dilute
Concentrated- large amount of solute per dm^3 and Dilute- a small amount of solute per dm^3
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Species
Any type of particle that takes place in a chemical reaction
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Acid
A species that is a proton doner
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Base
A species that is a proton acceptor
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Alkali
A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions OH-
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Salt
Any chemical compound formed an acid when H+ ion from the acid has been replaced by a metal ion or another positive ion
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Cation
Positively charged ion
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Anion
Negatively charged ion
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Acid + Carbonate
Salt + CO2 + H2O
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Acid + Base
Salt + H2O
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Acid + Alkali
Salt + H2O
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Hydrated
Refers to a crystalline compound containing water molecules
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Anhydrated
A substance that contains no water molecules
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Water of Crystallisation
Refers to water molecules that form an essential part of the crystalline structure of a compound
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Oxidation Number
A measure of the number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element, oxidation numbers are derived from a set of rules
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number
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Reduction
A gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation number
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Redox Reaction
Both oxidation and reduction happens
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Reducing Agent
Is a reagent that rduces (adds electrons to) another species
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Oxidising Agent
Is a regent that oxidises another species
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Ionic Bonding
The electrostatic between oppositely charged ions
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Giant Ionic Lattice
A 3-D structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds
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Covalent Bonding
Bonds formed by a shared pair of electrons
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Lone Pair
An outer-shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding
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A Dative Covalent Bond or A Coordinate Bond
A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one the bonding atoms only
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Octet
When atoms have more or less than 8 electrons in their outer shell when they have been covalently bonded
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Electronegativity
A measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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Permanent Dipolar-Dipole Force
Is a weak attraction force between permanent dipoles in neighbouring polar molecule
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Van der Waals Forces
Are attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules
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Hydrogen Bonding
Is strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron deficient hydrogen atom on one molecule or a lone pair of electrons on a highly electrostatic negative atom or on a different molecule
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Permanent Dipole
A small charge difference across a bond that results from a difference in the electronegative of bonded atoms
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Polar covalent bond
Has a permanent dipole
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Polar Molecule
Has an overall dipole when you take into account any dipoles across the bonds
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Intermolecular Forces
An attraction force between neighbouring molecules
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Metallic Bonding
The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons.
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Delocalised Electrons
Electrons that are shared between more than two atoms
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Simple Molecular Lattice
A three-dimensional structure of molecules, bonded together by weak intermolecular forces
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Giant Covalent Lattice
A three-dimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds
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First Ionisation Energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions
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Second Ionisation Energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions
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Electron Shielding
The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer-shell electrons
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Shell
A group of atomic orbitals with the same principal quantum number, n. Also known as a main energy level
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Principal Number
A number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increases with the distance from the nucleus. The set of orbitals with the same set of on-values are referred to as electron shells or energy levels
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Atomic Orbitals
A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins
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Sub-Shells
A group of the same type of atomic orbitals within a shell
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Electron Configuration
The arragement of electrons in an atom
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Group
Has similar properties, same amount of element in their outer shells (vertical)
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Period
Horizontal rows of elements, which show trends across the period
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Periodicity
Regular period variation of properties of elements with atomic number and position in the periodic table
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Thermal Decomposition
Breaking up of a chemical substance with heat into a least two chemical substances- more difficult to decompose as you go down to group
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Displacement Reaction
Is a reaction which a more reactive element displaces a less-reactive element from an aqueous solution of the latter's ions
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Disproportional Reaction
Oxidation and reduction of the same element in a redox reaction
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Precipitation Reaction
The forming of a solid from solution during a chemical reaction, precipitates are often formed when to aqueous solutions are mixed together
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Electron Configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom
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Displayed Formula
A formula showing the relative positioning of all the atoms in a molecule and the bonds between them
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Giant Metallic Lattice
A three-dimensional structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds
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Giant Covalent Lattice
A three-dimensional structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds
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Successive Ionisation Energy
A measure of the energy required to remove each electron in turn, e.g. the second ionisation energy is the energy required to remove one electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions
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Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

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Number of particles in the nucleus

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Card 4

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Mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12

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Card 5

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Is the weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12

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