# Atoms & Reactions

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• Created by: fjhcab
• Created on: 20-03-16 18:05
Isotope
Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
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Relative Atomic Mass, Ar
Mean mass of an atom of an element , compared to 1/12th of the mass of carbon-12
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Relative Isotopic Mass
Mass of an atom of an isotope compared with 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12
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Relative Molecular Mass, Mr
Average mass of a molecule or formula unit, compared to 1/12th of the mass of carbon-12
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Isotopic Abundances
1) Multiply each relative isotopic mass by its percentage relative isotopic abundance & add up results 2) Divide by 100
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Mass Spectrometry about Isotopes
1)Multiply each relative isotopic mass by its relative isotopic abundance & add it up 2) Divide by sum of abundances
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Number of Moles (Avogadro Constant)
Number of particles you have / Number of particles in a mole
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Number of Moles
Mass of substance / Molar mass
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Number of Moles (Gas)
Volume in dm3 / Molar gas volume
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Ideal Gas Equation
pV=nRT
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Molecular Formula
Actual number of atoms of each type of element in a molecule
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Empirical Formula
Smallest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compond
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Nitrate
NO3^-
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Carbonate
CO3^2-
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Sulfate
SO4^2-
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Hydroxide
OH-
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Ammonium
NH4^+
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Zinc Ion
Zn^2+
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Silver Ion
Ag+
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Acids
Proton donors. Produce H+ inos in an aqueous solution
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Bases
Proton acceptors. Grab H+ ions
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Alkalis
Bases that are soluble in water. Produce OH- ions in an aqueous solution
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Metal + Acid
Produces Metal Salt + Hydrogen
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Metal Oxide + Acid
Produces Salt + Water
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Metal Hydroxide + Acid
Produces Salt + Water
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Metal Carbonate + Acid
Produces Metal Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water
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Ammonia + Acid
Produces Ammonia salt
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(Titrations Indicators) Methyl Orange
Turns yellow to red
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(Titrations Indicators) Phenolphthalein
Turns pink to colourless
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Number of Moles (Titrations)
Concentration x volume (cm3) / 1000
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Number of Moles (Titrations)
Concentration x volume (dm3)
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Percentage Yield
(Actual Yield / Theoretical Yield) x 100
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Atom Economy
(molecular mass of desired product / sum of molecular masses of all product) x 100
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Reduction
Gain of electrons
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons
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Uncombined Element (C, Na)
Oxidation Number: 0
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Combined Element (H2O)
Oxidation Number: -2
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Combined Oxygen in Peroxides (H2O2)
Oxidation Number: -1
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Combined Hydrogen (NH3)
Oxidation Number: +1
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Combined Hydrogen in Metal Hydrides (LiH)
Oxidation Number: -1
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Simple Ions (Na+, Mg2+)
Oxidation Number: Charge on ion
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Combined Fluorine (NaF)
Oxidation Number: -1
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Relative Atomic Mass, Ar

#### Back

Mean mass of an atom of an element , compared to 1/12th of the mass of carbon-12

### Card 3

#### Front

Relative Isotopic Mass

### Card 4

#### Front

Relative Molecular Mass, Mr

### Card 5

#### Front

Isotopic Abundances