Atomic structure and periodicity

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Define relative atomic mass Ar
Average mass of an atom of an element on a scale where an atom of carbon-12 is 12
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Define relative molecular mass Mr
Average mass of a molecule on a scale where an atom of carbon 12 is 12
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Name the four processes in mass spectrometry
Ionisation, acceleration, ion drift and detection
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What are the two procedures to convert a solution into cations
Electro-spray ionisation and electron impact ionisation
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What accelerates the cations and why is it important that they are at the same kinetic energy
An electric field, it is important so the lighter ions will drift quicker
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What do the lines and their height represent on a mass/charge graph
Each line represents a different isotope of the element and the height tells you the abundance
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Electrons fill up the lowest energy sub shells first expect from one exception??
4s sub shell has a lower energy level and fills before 3d
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When transition metals become ions which sub shell loses electrons first?
4s
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Name the four elemental blocks of the periodic table
s, d, p and f
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Name the two metal exceptions to the sub shell theory and explain why
Chromium and copper donate one of their 4s electrons to the 3d sub shell to be more stable
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Define first ionisation energy
Energy needed to remove 1 electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous ions
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What factors affect ionisation energy?
Nuclear charge, atomic radius and shielding
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Why is there big jumps in ionisation energies during successive ionisation
A new shell is broken into so an electron is lost from a shell close to the nucleus, this can be used to tell what groups elements are om
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Describe the two main trends in ionisation energy
Ionisation energy decreases down a group and increases across a period
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Why does ionisation energy decrease down a group?
Extra shielding, weakened nuclear attraction and larger atomic radius
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Why does ionisation energy increase across a period?
Increased number of protons, stronger nuclear attraction and no extra shielding
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Why, despite the trend, is the ionisation energy for Al lower than Mg?
Al outer electron is in a 3p orbital which is further away from the nucleus and shielded by the 3s2 orbitals. making it easier to loose an electron
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Why, despite the trend, is the ionisation energy for S lower than P?
In S the electron is being removed from an orbital containing 2 electrons, the repulsion between these electrons makes it easier to lose
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Card 2

Front

Define relative molecular mass Mr

Back

Average mass of a molecule on a scale where an atom of carbon 12 is 12

Card 3

Front

Name the four processes in mass spectrometry

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the two procedures to convert a solution into cations

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What accelerates the cations and why is it important that they are at the same kinetic energy

Back

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