# atomic structure and periodic table

what is an element
An element is a substance containing only one type of atom
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what is the atomic mass
number of protons + number of neutrons in atom
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what is atomic number
proton number
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how do you work out the electron number
atomic number (only in atoms not ions)
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how do you work out neutron number
atomic mass - atomic number
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how do you work out proton number
atomic number
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what is a isotope
An isotope of an element has the same atomic number but a different atomic mass So the same number of PROTONS but a different number of NEUTRONS
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how do you work out relative atomic mass?
relative atomic mass = total mass of all atoms of element / total number of atoms of that element
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what is relative atomic mass
The relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element is the average mass of atoms of the element taking into account the mass and amount of each isotope it contains.
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Find the relative atomic mass of copper which is found to contain 69% of atoms with mass number 63, and 31% of atoms with mass number 65. give your answer to one decimal place.
(69x63)+(31x65)/100 = 63.6
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what are ions
Ions are charged particles, they lose or gain electrons in their outer shell
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when was the idea accepted that everything was made up of atoms and based off whos research?
John Dalton in the 1800s
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who came up with the plum pudding model, when, and how
J.J. Thompson in 1897 as he was carrying out experiments through the conduction of gases
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how was the nuclear model discovered?
They fired alpha particles (He2+) ions at a thin piece of gold foil. They expected the particles to pass straight through but a tiny fraction were deflected or even bounced back. this meant there has to be a tiny positive nucleus in the centre.
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who discovered the nuclear model and when?
Hans Geiger Ernest Marsden working with Ernest Rutherford in 1913
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who discovered shells, when, and how did they?
1913, Neils Bohr, his theoretical thoughts agreed with observatons from experiments.
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who discovered the neutron, when, and how?
James Chadwick in 1932 as scientists realised there was some mass which couldnt be explained by the model
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name 5 properties of metals
high melting + boiling point, high density, no reaction with metals, metal oxides are basic, are malleable enough to be hammered into shape
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name 5 properties of non-metals
non-metal oxides are acidic, brittle as solids, react to form mollecules with non metals, thermal and electrical inulator (except graphite), react with metals to form negative ions in ionic compounds
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non metal + non metal ->
electrons shared: mollecular compound
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metal + non metal
electrons transferred from metal to non metal: ionic compound
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metal+metal
no reaction as both metals cant lose electrons
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group 0 properties
They are all colorless gases with extremely low boiling and melting points. Their boiling points and relative atomic masses increase as you go down the group. They are extremely unreactive.
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group 1 properties
Fairly low density for metals, The metals react easily with non metals forming ions, - All the metals burn in oxygen to form metal oxides which are white powders, react with water releasing hydrogen gas + forming solution containing metal hydroxide
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group 7 properties
Non-metals, Toxic, Low melting and boiling points which increase as the molecules get heavier down the group, React with non-metals to form molecules, React easily with metals to form -1 ions.
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transition metal similarities with alkali metals
Thermal conductor, Electrical conductor, React with non- metals to form ionic compounds, Shiny when polished
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transition metals diferences with alkali metals
react to form ions with different charges ( eg. Iron forms Fe2+ and Fe3+), Metals and compounds are often catalysts, Stronger and harder, Low reactivity, Compounds are colored
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what did Dimitri Mendlev do which were better than John Newlands in the periodic table?
He left gaps for elements he predicted had yet to be discovered. He also predicted their properties, He was also prepared to slightly alter the order of the elements if he thought it fitted the properties better.
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what is filtration and when is it used
Mixture is poured through a funnel containing a piece of filter paper. The filtrate passes through the paper and the residue remains on the filter paper. Filtration is done when a insoluble solid and liquid are mixed.
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what is evaporation and when is it used
Mixture is placed in a evaporating dish and heated untill the solvent has evaporated or boiled, leaving the solid behind Evaporation is used to separate a dissolved solid from the solvent it is dissolved in
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what is crysilisation?
The mixture is heated to boil off some of the solvent to create a hot saturated solution. As it cools down, the solute becomes less soluble so cannot remain dissolved, so some of the solute crystallizes out of the solution as crystals.
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when is crystalisation done?
This is done when a solid is dissolved in a solvent.
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what is distillation and when is it done?
The mixture is heated and the solvent boils. The vaporized solvent passes through a water cooled condenser where it cools and condenses. this method is done to seperate a solvent from a solution.
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what is fractional distillation and when is it done?
A method used to separate miscible liquids. Fractional distillation relies on differences in boiling points. There is a fractionating column which often contains glass beads. It is hot at the bottom and cold at the top
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what is a seperating funnel and when is it done?
Separating funnels are used to separate immiscible liquids. The bottom layer (high density liquid) is removed using a tap.
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wht is chromotography?
A piece of chromatography paper with the mixture on is placed in a beaker so that the bottom of the paper is in the solvent. Over time, the solvent soaks up the paper. The substances move up the paper at different speeds and so are separated.
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when is chromotography done?
Paper chromatography is used to separate mixtures of substances dissolved in a solvent .
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

what is the atomic mass

#### Back

number of protons + number of neutrons in atom

### Card 3

#### Front

what is atomic number

### Card 4

#### Front

how do you work out the electron number

### Card 5

#### Front

how do you work out neutron number