Atomic Structure

Difference between compounds & mixtures
Compounds have a fixed structure but mixtures don't. In mixtures, there are no chemical bonds so they can be separated easily, but compounds have got stronger chemical bonds, so they use chemical reactions to break them apart.
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Filtration
Used to separate substances that are non-dissolvable and dissolvable into different, specific substances.
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Crystallisation
Used to get pure salt from a solution. It can be done using a window sill to evaporate the water which will leave the salt crystals behind.
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Distillation
Where the solution is heated and the solvent evaporates and is condensed.
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What substances do they separate?
Filtration: filtering mud from water. Distillation: distilling alcohol from water. Crystallisation: salt from salt water.
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How does fractional distillation work?
The column is filled with glass beads - hottest at the bottom. Substances with the highest boiling points condense on the colder beads and drip back into the flask.Substances with lower boiling points will rise up the column & turn back into a liquid
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What can be separated by fractional distillation?
Fractional distillation can be used to separate a mixture of liquids with different boiling points e.g. water and ethanol.
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Everyday uses of fractional distillation
When you get water from a natural source, such as underground water or rain water, it contains numerous minerals and impurities. So, the of water is fractionally distilled to remove those impurities and minerals. This results in distilled water.
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What happens in paper chromatography?
1. Put the pencil line on filter paper. 2. Spot the ink on. 3. Place the filter paper in shallow water. 4. Water runs up the paper taking the components (of the ink) with it.
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What are protons?
A tiny positive particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
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What are neutrons?
A dense particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It is electrically neutral, carrying no charge.
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What are electrons?
A tiny particle with a negative charge. They orbit the nucleus of atoms or ions in shells.
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What is mass number?
The number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
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What is atomic number?
The number of protons in an atom. Also known as the proton number.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Filtration

Back

Used to separate substances that are non-dissolvable and dissolvable into different, specific substances.

Card 3

Front

Crystallisation

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Distillation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What substances do they separate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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