Atomic Structure

Name the three subatomic particles found in an atom.
Electron, Neutron, Proton
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State where in the atom each of these particles would be found.
Electron= orbitals around the nucleus. Neutron and Proton= the nucleus.
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State the relative masses of these particles.
Electron=1/2000, Neutron=1, Proton=1
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What is a mass number?
The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
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What is an atomic number?
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
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How can you work out the number of neutrons an atom has?
By subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.
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What are isotopes?
Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
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Why do isotopes have the same chemical properties?
The number of electrons in the atom remains the same.
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Explain why isotopes can have different physical properties.
They have different masses.
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Describe how J.J. Thompson's model of the atom was different from Dalton's model.
Dalton describes atoms as solid spheres whereas Thompson suggested atoms contained small negatively charged particles in a positively charged pudding.
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Explain how Rutherford's gold foil experiment provided evidence that Thompson's model was wrong.
If Thompson was correct, alpha particles fired at the foil should've been deflected. However, most of them just passed through the foil.
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Describe Rutherford's model of the atom.
A tiny positively charged nucleus at the centre surrounded by negative electrons. Most of the atom is just empty space.
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Describe the main features of Bohr's model of the atom.
Electrons only exist in fixed shells and each shell has a fixed energy.
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What is relative atomic mass?
The average mass of an atom on a scale where an atom of C12 is 12.
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What is relative molecular mass?
The average mass of a molecule on a scale where an atom of C12 is 12.
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What is relative formula mass?
The average mass of a formula unit on a scale where an atom of C12 is 12.
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Name the four stages that a sample goes through in a time of flight mass specrometer.
Ionisation, acceleration, ion drift, detection.
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How does a time of flight mass spectrometer separate different ions?
Ions are accelerated with the same kinetic energy however, their different masses mean they take different amounts of time to reach the detector.
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What does the x-axis of a mass spectrum show?
mass/charge.
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Assuming all ions in a sample have a charge of +1, how can you tell from the mass spectrum how many isotopes are present in the sample?
The number of isotopes in the sample is equal to the number of peaks on the mass spectrum.
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How many orbitals does a p sub-shell contain?
3
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How many electrons can a p sub-shell hold?
6 ( 2 electrons in each orbital)
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How many electrons can the 3rd electron shell hold?
18
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What does electron configuration mean?
The number of electrons an atom or ion has and how they are arranged.
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What is the electron configuration of a chromium atom?
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s1
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Why isn't the electron configuration of copper 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d9 4s2?
Copper donates one of its 4s electrons to the 3d sub-shell to make it full. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1
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Describe the ions that group 5,6 and 7 elements form.
Negative ions with an inert gas electron configuration.
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Define first ionisation energy.
Energy required to remove the outer electron from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
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How does the number of protons in an atom affect its first ionisation energy?
The more protons, the more positively charged the nucleus is, the stronger the attraction for the electrons and the higher the first ionisation energy.
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Give two other factors that affect first ionisation energy.
1)The distance the outer electron is from the nucleus 2)The amount of shielding.
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Define second ionisation enrrgy.
The energy required to remove the outer electron from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
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Explain why successive ionisation energies increase within each shell of an atom.
Electrons are being removed from an increasingly positive ion. There's less repulsion amongst remaining electrons so they're held more strongly by the nucleus.
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What happens to first ionisation energy of elements in group 2 as you go down the group?
It decreases.
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What is the general trend in ionisation energies across a period?
It increases.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

State where in the atom each of these particles would be found.

Back

Electron= orbitals around the nucleus. Neutron and Proton= the nucleus.

Card 3

Front

State the relative masses of these particles.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a mass number?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an atomic number?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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