Assessing relatedness with genetic evidence

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What are the four ways of assessing relatedness with genetic evidence?
DNA sequences, DNA hybridization, Amino acid sequences and Immunology
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How can you assess relatedness with genetic evidence through DNA sequences?
The more similarity in the organisms DNA base sequence, the closer the organisms are related. The less similarities in the DNA base sequences, the more distantly related.
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What has DNA analysis confirmed?
Evolutionary relationships and corrected mistakes made in classification based on physical characteristics.
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How can you assess relatedness with genetic evidence through DNA hybridisation?
It involves comparing the DNA base sequences of two species. DNA from both organisms is extracted, separated and cut into fragments. Fragments are mixed and where there's complementary base sequences they hybridise together.
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How much DNA do chimpanzees and humans have in common, and humans and rhesus monkeys?
Humans and chimpanzees have about 95% of their DNA in common, however, humans and rhesus monkeys have about 93% of their DNA in common.
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How can you assess relatedness with genetic evidence through amino acid sequences?
The degree of similarity in the amino acid sequences of the same protein in 2 species reflects how closely related they are.
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How can you assess relatedness with genetic evidence through immunology?
Proteins can be compared using immunological techniques. If you mix antigens of 1 species with specific antibodies of the other, antigens and antibodies make a precipitate. Closer the evolutionary relationship, the more precipitate.
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What does the word species mean?
In everyday language it means 'type', in biological use it refers to types of organisms.
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What is the morphological definiton?
If two organisms look similar they're likely to be the same species. May be differences, sexual dimorphism, these muts be taken into account.
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What is the reproductive definition?
Two organisms are in the same species if they can interbreed to make fertile offspring.
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What is taxonomy?
Taxonomy is the identification and naming of organisms.
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What does taxonomy allow?
It allows us to discover and describe biological diversity, investigate evolutionary relationships between organisms and classify organisms to reflect their evolutionary relationship.
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What happened in 1973?
In 1973, Linnaeus introduced a system that gave organisms two names and it's called the binomial system.
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What are the three advantages of the binomial system?
Unambigious naming. It's based on Latin. It implies that two species haring part of their name are closely related.
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How do you use the binomal system?
1) Two names, genus & species. 2) Genus name is first word, capital letter. 3) Species come second, no capital letter. 4) First time name is used it's written in full. 5) If used again, abbreviated. 6) Names are in italics/underlined when handwritten
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Card 2

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How can you assess relatedness with genetic evidence through DNA sequences?

Back

The more similarity in the organisms DNA base sequence, the closer the organisms are related. The less similarities in the DNA base sequences, the more distantly related.

Card 3

Front

What has DNA analysis confirmed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How can you assess relatedness with genetic evidence through DNA hybridisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How much DNA do chimpanzees and humans have in common, and humans and rhesus monkeys?

Back

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