Assessing Biodiversity

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 17-03-16 14:56
What's an example of polymorphism in humans?
ABO blood grouping system
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What produces a biodiversity index?
Assessing biodiversity at the population level
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What can an examination of genes and alleles give?
An assessment of the biodiversity at the genetic level. This focuses on the alleles present in the gene pool of a population
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Why in Central America is there a low biodiversity?
As the frequency o the allele IO is almost 100%, this creates a low biodiversity.
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What does natural selection generate?
Biodiversity
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What does the Simpson's index describe?
The biodiversity of motile organisms.
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What's the 3rd stage of Natural Selection?
Competitive Advantage - Some are more suited to the environment than others and out-compete them for resources
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Does Gene S or Gene T give a higher biodiversity?
Gene S has a greater biodiversity than Gene T as more phenotypes are possible from Gene S than Gene T.
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What do Gene T and Gene S control?
Gene T controls the height, there's two different alleles. Gene S controls whether or not pollen can germinate on the stigma of a flower of the same species, has many different alleles.
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The higher the value of the Simpson's index...
the higher the biodiversity
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What are the 3 alleles of the I gene?
IA, IB and IO.
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What happens when you compare the number and position of the bands in DNA profiles of a population?
It indicates how similar of different the DNA base sequences are. The more different SNPs and HVRs a population has, the greater the differences are in their DNA fingerprints. The larger the difference, the higher the biodiversity.
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What happens if a gene has more alleles?
It's locus is more polymorphic than if there were fewer
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A genes position on a chromosome is its...
Locus
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What does a locus show?
A locus shows polymorphism if it has two or more alleles at frequencies greater than would occur by mutation alone.
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What can a biodiversity index be used for?
Monitor the biodiversity of a habitat over time, and compare biodiversity in different habitats
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What does more habitats mean?
More habitats means that are more ecological niches, more species can be accommodated and there's a higher biodiversity
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What's the 1st stage of Natural Selection?
Mutation - differences in DNA
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What do non-coding DNA sequences undergo?
Mutations in order for individuals to acquire different base sequences.
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What does N and n stand for?
N = the total number of organisms present n = the number in each species
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What happens if 50% of the alleles of a particular gene are recessive?
Only 50% of the alleles are recessive, so 50% are other alleles. There'd be a higher biodiversity.
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What happens when an environment undergoes changes?
Over many generations individuals with alleles that are more suited to the changes will reproduce more efficiently, and therefore resulting in most of the population having those specific features.
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What's the 6th, final stage of Natural Selection?
Pass advantageous alleles to offspring - offspring inherit the advantageous alleles, so they are also suited to the environment.
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What's the 5th stage of Natural Selection?
Reproduction - those more suited to the environment have more offspring
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What's the formula for Simpson's index?
S = ∑n(n-1) / N(N-1)
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What happens if it's only one base that differs?
The single base differences are called SNPs (snips) and this stands for single nucleotide polymorphisms.
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What's the 4th stage of Natural Selection?
Survival of the fittest - those more suited to the environment survive better
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What happens if 98% of the alleles of a particular gene are the same recessive allele?
There's a low biodiversity for that gene
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What happens when regions of DNA vary, generally about 20-40 base sequences long?
They are often repeated many times. They are unique lengths of non-coding DNA and are called hypervariable regions (HVR) or short tandem repeats (STRs)
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What's the 2nd stage of Natural Selection?
Variation - different physical appearance or behaviour
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Card 2

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What produces a biodiversity index?

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Assessing biodiversity at the population level

Card 3

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What can an examination of genes and alleles give?

Back

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Card 4

Front

Why in Central America is there a low biodiversity?

Back

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Card 5

Front

What does natural selection generate?

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