Asch

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What can Asch's study placed in?
historical context
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What were many studies on after WW2?
social pressure
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What were psychologists keen to prevent?
events like the holocaust
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Why did people think the holocaust happened?
people had bowed to social pressure, and wanted to "fit in with the crowd"
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What was the first previous research?
Sherif
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What di Sherif's study involve?
pps judging how far a light moved in the dark
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What was the light actually doing?
It is actually still, the autokinetic effect
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What happened a few days later?
They were put into groups where sherif ensured 1 pp had a different estimate
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What did Sherif find about the pps?
The pp who had the most different answer was likely to change their response to fit in with the group
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What was other previous research?
Jenness
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What did Jenness look at?
conformity in ambigious situations where the correct answer was not obvious
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What problem did Asch see with Jenness' study?
The answer was not obvious
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What did Asch not want to do?
devise an unambiguous situation where there was a clearly correct answer
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What was Asch's first aim?
find out if people tend to conform to, or agree with, the view of the majority and to bow to group pressure
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What was Asch's second aim?
investigate this in an unambiguous situation where right wrong answers are clear
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What was Asch's research?
It was an observation carried out under controlled conditions
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What did Asch's sample consist of?
123 naive true pps collected by volunteer sampling
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What was similar about Asch's pps?
they were all male and from 3 USA colleges
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What happened first in his research?
One pp was in a group of 7-9 confederates
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Where was the true pp placed?
they were seated second to last in the row so they can hear the answers of the confederates
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What were the pps shown?
A series of lines- a standard line and 3 seperate lines
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What were the pps asked to do?
match the standard line to one of the 3 other lines, where the answer was always obvious aloud in front of others
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HOw many trials were there for each group?
18 trials
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What happened on the 12 critical trials?
All the confederates called out the wrong unanimous answers
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What was the first variation of Asch's study?
He varied the confederate groups size from 1-15
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What was the second variation?
He allowed one confederate to always answer truthfully
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what was the third variation?
A pp who gave wrong, but different answers to other confederates
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What did Asch also do?
he also interviewed pps see why they'd conformed
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What ethical issue did Asch addressed?
debriefing his pps and explaining the true purpose the research
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How many naive pps conformed to the incorrect answer?
36.8% of the critical trials
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What happened in normal circumstances?
pps made mistakes less than 1% of the time
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How many naive pps never conformed?
1/4
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What did Asch find out about his pps?
They were consistent in their answer
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For example?
those who started independtly continued to give their own answers and vice versa
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What did Asch found in a group of one confederate?
pps did not conform
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for example?
2 confederates, 13.6% and 3 confederates, 31.8%
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What else did he find out?
conformity to the majority declined if the pp had an ally who told the truth
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what did Asch's pps report?
They conformed in order "not to spoil your results"
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why else did people conform?
They believed their answers were wrong
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Why didnt people conform?
"confidence in their own judgement
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What was Asch's first conclusion?
Social pressure makes some people conform to the majority
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What was anothe g=conclusion about resisting pressure?
Some people resist social pressure and remain independent
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What was Asch's quote?
"the tendency to conformity(in our society so strong that reasonably intelligent and well meaning young people are willing to call black white) is a matter of concern
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What did Asch warn?
Human capacity to be independent is not to be underestimated
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What were many studies on after WW2?

Back

social pressure

Card 3

Front

What were psychologists keen to prevent?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why did people think the holocaust happened?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the first previous research?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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