As Science OCR Unit 2 Module 4

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Why do fossil fuels release energy?
Endothermic reaction is caused because when the bonds are broken more energy than is required is released so heat energy is emitted
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What are the environmental effects of fossil fuels?
CO2 is omitted and therefore increasing global warming, S0x causes acid rain, NOx causes acid rain and photochemical smog.
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What is the atomic number?
Number of protons in the nucleus
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What is the mass number?
Total number of protons and neutrons
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What is an isotope?
Atoms which have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
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Properties of an alpha particle?
Helium nucleus, +2 charge, mass of four, range of a few centimetres, stopped by paper, high ionising power.
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Properties of a beta particle?
Fast-moving electron, -1 charge, mass of 0.00055, range of a few metres, it is stopped by aluminium foil, moderate ionising power.
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Properties of a gamma ray?
Ray, zero charge, zero mass, very long range, stop by thick lead sheet, low ionising power.
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What is irradiation?
Exposure of an area or object to radiation, the object doesn't become radioactive, as it doesn't contain a source of radiation
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What is contamination?
Spreading a radioactive source into a particular object or area. The object becomes radioactive.
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What is a half life?
The time taken for the number of atoms of a sample of a radioactive isotope to fall to half its original value
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Principal natural sources of ionising radiation?
Gamma radiation from radioactive isotope in underground rock, alpha and gamma radiation from radon, cosmic rays – high energy particles such as protons and electrons emitted by stars
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Artificial source of ionising radiation?
Atomic weapons, nuclear power station accidents, x-rays.
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What is nuclear fission?
Splitting of nucleus into lighter fragments caused by the absorption of a neutron. Gamma rays, neutrons and heat are also produced
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What is nuclear fusion?
Two nuclei join together to produce a single heavier nucleus. Very high temperatures are required to cause this to happen
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What are the advantages of burning fossil fuels?
Ready-made fuel, cheap to mine and convert into energy
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What are the disadvantages are burning fossil fuels?
Gives off atmospheric pollutants
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What are the advantages of nuclear fission?
Small amount of radioactive matter produced a lot of energy and no atmospheric pollutants are produced
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What are the disadvantages of nuclear fission?
Expensive to run, potential for disaster
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What are the advantages of nuclear fusion?
No atmospheric pollutants, fuel plentiful, extremely safe
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What are the disadvantages of nuclear fusion?
Very expensive, low yield in comparison to energy used to generate.
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What are the advantages of wind power?
Possibly infinite
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What are the disadvantages of wind power?
Risk to wildlife, costly to implement
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What are the advantages of solar power?
Cheap, possibly infinite,
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What are the disadvantages of solar power?
Manufacture is costly
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What are the advantages of wave power?
Ideal for islands and likely to be small.
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What are the disadvantages of wave power?
Disruption to marine ecosystems, and construction expensive.
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What are the advantages of tidal power?
Ideal for an island, potential to generate a lot of energy.
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What are the disadvantages of tidal power?
Construction expensive
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Why is energy transmitted at high voltages?
To reduce power – which is dependent on the size of the current and recent suspense of the wire. Higher the voltage know the current.
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What does a step up transformer do?
Increases the voltage to very high voltage.
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What is a step down transformer?
Reduced voltage to 240 V to be safe to use in our domestic supplier.
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Why is alternating-current used for energy transmission?
AC is easier to be generated from turbines analyse Transformers to change the voltage.
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What is current?
A flow of charge, charge will be carried by electrons. Amps (A)
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What is the voltage?
The measure of the amount of energy that can be transferred when the charge moves between two points. Volt (V)
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What is the resistance?
The ability of the material to resist the flow of electrical charge. Ohms ( )
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What is power?
The rate at which energy is transferred. Watt (W)
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What is alternating-current?
Direction of flow of electrons carrying the charge alternates many times in a second
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What is direct current?
Flow of charge in one direction.
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What is an electric field?
A region of space around a charged object in which any other objects may experience a force.
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What is a magnetic field?
A region of space the magnetic pole in which any other magnetic pole experience a force
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the environmental effects of fossil fuels?

Back

CO2 is omitted and therefore increasing global warming, S0x causes acid rain, NOx causes acid rain and photochemical smog.

Card 3

Front

What is the atomic number?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the mass number?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an isotope?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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