As Science OCR Unit 1 Module 2

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Function of cell membrane?
Controls which substances enter and leave the cells
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Role of cell membrane in energy transfer?
Allows glucose and oxygen into the cell, allows carbon dioxide out
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Function of mitochondria?
site of respiration
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Role of mitochondria in energy transfer?
Respiration transfer most of the energy stored in glucose into ATP (and some heat)
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Function of chloroplasts?
Site of photosynthesis
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Role of chloroplasts in energy transfer?
Chloroplasts trap light energy from the sun and transfer it into chemical energy in the form of glucose
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Function of cytoplasm?
site of some respiration reactions and most other chemical reaction
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Role of cytoplasm in energy transfer?
the ATP made in respiration diffuses through the cytoplasm to provide the energy required for the range of chemical reaction
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Process of photosynthesis: absorption of light by chlorophyll?
Light energy trapped in chlorophyll, this absorbs red and blue light but reflects green
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Process of Photosynthesis: Light dependant stage?
Light energy used to split water molecules into oxygen molecules and hydrogen atoms and ATP molecule made from ADP and an inorganic phosphate ion
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Process of Photosynthesis: Light independent stage?
hydrogen atoms from light dependant stage are combine with carbon dioxide to form glucose. The energy for this process comes from the breakdown of ATP
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What is an autotroph?
An organism that produces complex organic compounds from inorganic compounds and an external energy source
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What is a chemoautotroph?
an autotroph that obtains energy from chemical reaction
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What is photoautotroph?
an autotroph that obtains energy from light
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Cells need energy for biosynthesis to be able to...
build up complex molecules from simpler ones, e.g to make proteins from amino acids
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Cells need energy for movement to be able to...
contract muscle, like beating hairs (cilia) of single celled organisms
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Cells need energy for active transport to be able to...
move molecules in and out of cells
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Passive transport...
moves down concentration gradient, allows small molecules(water,oxygen,carbon dioxide) to pass through.
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Active Transport...
moves up the concentration gradient, requires energy to "push" molecules through protein channels. Energy provided by breakdown of ATP to ADP and Pi
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Sites of respiration are...
mitochondria and cytoplasm
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Anaerobic respiration produces...
about 2 ATP molecules and some toxic substances (Ethanol and lactic acid)
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What is Productivity?
The amount of energy trapped by an ecosystem in the form of biomass
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What is a Food Chain?
A series of organisms, each dependent on the next as a source of food.
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What is a Food Web?
a system of interlocking food chains
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What is a Trophic Level?
Organisms sharing the same function in the food chain, on the same level of the web
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What is a Producer?
First trophic level of the food chain, usually an autotroph.
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What is a Consumer?
an organism that feeds on other organisms made up of biomass
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What is a Decomposer?
An organism that feeds on dead or decaying organisms
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Nitrogen Cycle: Inputs
Nitrogen fixing bacteria - convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium compounds, nitrogen fixing by lightning - converts atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen oxides.
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Nitrogen Cycle: Outputs
Leaching - nitrogen compounds dissolve into rainwater, end up in ground water; run-off - dissolved nitrogen in rainwater onto streams and rivers, denitrifying bacteria - convert N ions into atmospheric N
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Word Equation for the Haber Process
Nitrogen + Hydrogen = Ammonia
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Conditions required for the Haber Process
High Temperature (400-500ºC), high pressure (100 times the atmospheric pressure), catalyst of iron
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What is Eutrophication?
An increase in the level of nutrients, normally seen in aquatic ecosystems.
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Impact of Eutrophication
Increase in nutrients causes rapid growth of algae and other water based plants
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What is a Biome?
A very large region consisting of similar ecosystems
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What is an Ecosystem?
The community of living organisms interacting with each other and the physical environment in which they live
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What is a Community?
The living organisms in a particular ecosystems
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What is a Population?
The organisms of a particular species living in an ecosystem
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What is a Habitat?
The physical environment in which a community lives.
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How is Productivity measured?
amount of energy (in kJ) trapped by 1m squared of land in a year
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What is a Species?
A separate group of organisms that can successfully interbreed which each other.
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What is Biodiversity?
the variety of organisms present in an ecosystem. This is often measured as the number of different species
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What is the Importance of Biodiversity?
Plant species are a particularly rich source, extinction could result in the removal of future medicines
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What is Natural Selection?
within a population, there will be variation of characteristics. Natural selection shows that only the most favourable characteristics survive and breed.
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What is Adaptation?
The development of a characteristic which increases the ability of an organism to survive.
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What is Speciation?
The formation of new species by cumulative natural selection over a long period of time.
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What is geographical isolation?
when populations become physically separated from each other, this means they cannot interbreed and the favourable characteristics become increasing common in these populations
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Card 2


Role of cell membrane in energy transfer?


Allows glucose and oxygen into the cell, allows carbon dioxide out

Card 3


Function of mitochondria?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Role of mitochondria in energy transfer?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Function of chloroplasts?


Preview of the front of card 5
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