AS Psychology: Social Influence

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What is the process by which an individuals attitudes, beliefs or behaviours are affected by the presence or actions of others?
Social influence.
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Conformity is a type of what?
Social influence.
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What are the three types of social influence?
Obedience, conformity, and minority influence.
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What is conformity?
Yielding to a majority by adjusting behaviour or opinions to fit with those of the majority around us.
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What are the three types of conformity?
Compliance, internalisation, and identification.
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Which psychologist identified these three categories of conformity and in what year?
Kelman(1968).
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What is active social influence?
Explicit instructions given by people who want you to act or behave in a certain way.
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What are rules or behaviours that prescribe what is acceptable in a given situation?
Social norms.
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What is the deepest form of conformity?
Internalisation.
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What is internalisation?
A type of conformity where the belief/behaviour of a majority is accepted as correct by the individual and the majority behaviour/beliefs become a part of the individuals own belief system.
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Is internalisation an example of private or public conformity? Why?
Private. The individuals own belief system is altered.
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What is the difference between public and private conformity?
When one publicly conforms, they will adhere to the majority's beliefs and behaviour, but private disagree. Private conformity is when an individual's belief system is altered and the individual believes the majority to be right.
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What are the three reasons for conformity?
Normative social influence, informative social influence, and cognitive dissonance.
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Which reason for conformity is based on the desire to be liked?
Normative social influence.
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If normative social influence is based on the desire to be liked, then informative social influence is based on the desire to be...?
Right.
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What is cognitive dissonance?
Having inconsistent and/or opposing thoughts regarding behavioural decisions and attitude change.
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What are the three types of experiments a psychologist could carry out which relate to the conditions of the surroundings of the study?
Laboratory, field, and natural.
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What is a natural experiment?
An experiment in which the allocation of participants to the different experimental conditions reflects naturally occurring differences in the independent variable.
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What is a laboratory experiment?
An experiment in which changes are only made to the independent variable, so only the variable of interest can affect the outcome.
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What is a field experiment?
An experiment in which the experimenter will make changes to the independent variable in order to see it's effect on the dependent variable, but will change nothing else.
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The psychologist Asch was researching conformity in what type of situations?
Non-ambiguous.
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What was the aim of Asch's experiment?
To investigate to what extent people will conform to a majority influence even when the majority is obviously incorrect.
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When did Asch carry out his experiment?
1951.
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How many participants were used in this experiment?
123.
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How did the participants in Asch's experiment deduct from the experiments ecological validity?
The participants were all white American males, only representative of a specific group of people, therefore it lacked population validity. The sample was not sufficiently representative to allow generalisation.
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What was the ratio of participant to confederate?
1:7-9
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What is a confederate or a stooge?
Someone taking part in an experiment who is aware of the aim of the study and is told by experimenters how to behave in order to manipulate the experiment.
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What is another way of saying the confederates in the experiment were scripted?
Standardised.
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What type of experiment was Asch's experiment?
Laboratory experiment.
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What were the advantages of the laboratory conditions?
Higher control of extraneous variables(only changing one variable at a time) which meant causality could be inferred.
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In Asch's experiment, were the participants shocked or asked to answer a multiple choice question?
Multiple choice question.
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How was the way in which the participants/confederates answered the question important?
All involved answered orally and were only to say the letter associated to the picture they believed to be correct(not I think..) The participant answered last after all the confederates had answered, providing a stimulus to which they could conform.
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What was the multiple choice question asked in Asch's experiment?
Those questioned were shown a picture. On one side was one line, on the other side were three lines, one of which matched the original line, and they were asked to identify which matched the original.
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What percentage of participants conformed in Asch's experiment when they were asked this question on their own?
0.04%.
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What percentage of participants in Asch's experiment conformed when with confederates?
Nearly 75%.
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Can Asch's experiment allow generalisation in other settings?
Whilst it can be repeated, it lacks mundane realism, therefore it does not.
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Which psychologist claimed that due to increased stress levels in Asch's experiment made it unethical?
Bogdonoff.
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Was Asch's study ever repeated? If so, who by?
Yes. Crutchfield(1955):participants in separate booths(believed conformity was a result of face to face interaction), had to press a button to answer, but only after seeing what the others had answered.
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Did Perrin and Spencer replicate Asch's study or Milgram's study?
Asch's.
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How did they do this and when?
1980. Used British students instead of Americans. Also experimented with black alienated youths. Saw similar levels of conformity to Asch when studying the youths. With students(of maths, science, engi...), only 1/396 trail showed conformity.
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Which psychologist wanted to investigate how far people will obey to authority?
Milgram.
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Milgram was eager to use his results to determine what?
Whether the Holocaust could repeat itself.
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Who was used in Milgram's experiment?
40 male volunteers(bar students).
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Why did the experimenter wear a lab coat?
To enforce his authority.
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When did Milgram carry out his experiment?
1963.
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Where did the study take place?
Yale University.
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What percentage of participants conformed during the standard study?
65%.
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Was Milgram's study replicated?
Yes.
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How many variations of the standard procedure did Milgram carry out?
8 variations.
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How did Milgram test one's obedience?
By making the participant administer gradually increasing electric shocks each time a "student" got an answer wrong. The shocks ranged from 15V-450V. The participant administering the shocks was under the orders of the experimenter.
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Was there a student receiving the shocks in the experiment?
No. It was a tape recording.
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Were the results from all Milgram's variations consistent?
No. The minor alterations of some variables caused a change in the results.
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When the authority was reduced in Milgram's variations, did the percentage of obedience increase from the 65% in the standard procedure or decrease?
Decreased. When the location was moved to a run down office block, only 48% obeyed. When there were 2 confederates, only 10% obeyed. When the experimenter's orders were given by phone, 20.5% obeyed.
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Did the percentage of obedience increase or decrease when participants were more aware?
Decreased. When the victim was silent throughout, 100% obeyed.
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How many participants did Milgram observe over the 8 variations and standard procedure?
Over 2,000 participants.
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What was the percentage of obedience in the standard procedure?
65%.
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What was the percentage of obedience when the victim was silent throughout?
100%.
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What was the percentage of obedience when the location was moved to a run down back office?
48%.
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What was the percentage of obedience when the victim was in the same room as the teacher?
40%.
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What was the percentage of obedience when the teacher forces the hand onto the shock plate?
30%.
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What was the percentage of obedience when the experimenter's orders were given over the phone?
20.5%.
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What was the percentage of obedience when two additional confederate 'teachers' refused to obey?
10%.
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What was the percentage of obedience when the teacher reads the words but the confederate has to administer the shock?
92.5%.
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What was the percentage of obedience when the experimenter does not wear a lab coat?
20%.
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Who else replicated Milgram's experiment?
Hofling(1966) instead he used nurses in a hospital to see whether they would obey doctors orders, and Hofling's variation was repeated by Rank and Jacobson in 1977.
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How is Baumrind relevant to Milgram's study?
She criticised Milgram, accusing Milgram of abusing his participant's rights and feelings.
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Was Milgram's study ecologically valid?
It was the most general. It had population validity as the sample of volunteers was diverse in comparison to Asch's study. Historically valid as it was testing obedience to authority, like behaviour in the Holocaust.
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How did Burger replicate Milgram's study?
In 2007, he carried out the same experiment only, to make the experiment more ethical, he limited the shocks to 150V. He chose 150V because 80% of those in Milgrams study went on to administer the full 450V after exceeding the 150V mark.
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Were Burger's results consistent with Milgram's?
Yes. 70% of participants obeyed the authority, similar to the 65% obedience in Milgram's standard procedure.
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Which psychologist studied conformity using jelly beans?
Jenness.
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In what year did he do this?
1932.
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What did he aim to investigate in this experiment?
The effect of a majority influence in a non-ambiguous situation.
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What type of experiment was this, lab, natural, or field?
Laboratory experiment.
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What was an advantage of this?
Higher degree of control over the independent and dependent variable.
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What is a disadvantage of this?
Problems operationalising the variables and lower ecological validity.
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What are three faults in the design of Jenness's experiment?
Artificial, unusual setting therefore lacks ecological validity(results aren't generalizable), longitudinal study meaning the experiment becomes costly, unusual scenario means experiment is not applicable to cultural behaviour.
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Did Jenness's experiment have internal or external validity primarily? How?
Internal validity, as the experiment achieved what it set out to.
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Why doesn't the experiment have external validity?
It doesn't reflect real life behaviour in real life situations(lacks mundane realism), though the principles of conformity resonate.
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Was the sample sufficiently representative to allow generalisation?
Yes, used both males and females(population validity). No, results of experiment were situation specific and left little room for generalisation.
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Are there any ethical issues to Jenness's experiment? Why?
No. There was no element of deceit, and therefore is regarded as ethically sound.
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Does Jenness's study provide evidence for or against a theory?
The study tells us little, if anything about majority influence in a non-ambiguous situation.
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Who's experiment did Bogdonoff criticise and what did he say?
Soloman Asch. Claimed his experiment was unethical because it caused an increase in the participant's stress levels.
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Which psychologist replicated Milgram's study in a hospital?
Hoffling.
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In what year did Hoffling replicate this experiment?
1966.
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Who did he use to replicate this experiment?
22 night nurses in a hospital.
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How did Hoffling test their willingness to obey?
On the telephone, he called the nurse asking her to administer 20mg of the drug, twice the maximum dosage claiming he was in a hurry and would sign the paperwork for confirmation when he returned.
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Of the 22 nurses, how many obeyed?
21/22, 95% obedience.
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Was the obedience positive in the nurses?
In obeying the doctor over the phone and giving the dosage of drug they did, they went against three hospital rules, showing they were willing to obey to an authority even if it means breeching rules.
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Did Hoffling's experiment use a 'real' drug?
No, a placebo was created specifically for the experiment, so patients were not put in any real danger.
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How can this drug "substitution" make the experiment unethical?
The nurses participating believed they were administering the real drug and therefore the element of deception made the experiment unethical.
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Were participants debriefed by Hoffling following the experiment?
Yes. Within half an hour after the conclusion of the experiment all participants were debriefed in a personal interview.
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Did Hoffling's experiment have ecological validity? Why?
Yes. The experiment took place in a real life setting involving real people and therefore makes the results of the experiment more generalizable. No. The experiment took place in a hospital and used nurses and therefore lacked occupational validity.
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What did Moscovici investigate the effects of? Majority or minority influence?
Minority influence.
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When did Moscovici carry out his study?
1969.
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What was the aim of Moscovici's experiment?
To investigate the effects of a consistent minority on a majority.
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Were there any preliminary experiments carried out before Moscovici carried out his experiment?
Yes. Each participant was given an eye test to check for colour blindness before the experiment began.
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How did Moscovici carry out this experiment?
M arranged his participants into groups of 6, 4:2 participant:confederate ratio. He then showed them 36 slides all of which were different shades of blue. They had to recite the colour of the card. There were two groups(c&ic).
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What role did the confederates play in the experiment?
They answered for all of the 36 slides before the participants. In the first condition(c) they answered green for all 36. In the second condition(ic), they answered blue for 24 and green for 12.
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What was the conformity in the consistent condition?
8.42%.
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What was the conformity in the inconsistent condition?
1.25%.
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What percentage of participants conformed at least once?
32%.
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What does the experiment show?
Minorities can have an influence over a majority, but not all the time and only when they behave in certain ways.
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What type of experiment was Moscovici's?
Laboratory experiment?
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Why is this good?
Higher degree of control over the independent and dependent variable.
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Why is this not good?
Problems operationalising these variables. Lacks ecological validity because of the artificial setting.
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What did Schute do in 1975?
He exposed undergraduate students to those with liberal and conservative views to drug taking. Those with an internal LOC conformed less to exposing pro-drug attitudes.
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What is locus of control?
A personal causation perceived by individuals in response to an event or the outcome of a situation.
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What is the difference between internal locus of control and external locus of control?
Someone with an internal LOC feels personally responsible for their actions and the consequences of their actions. Someone with an external LOC would believe the outcomes of their actions are a result of powerful, uncontrollable external forces.
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Which psychologist came up with the idea of locus of control?
Rotter.
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In what year did Rotter come up with this?
1966.
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Card 2

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Conformity is a type of what?

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Social influence.

Card 3

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What are the three types of social influence?

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Card 4

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What is conformity?

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Card 5

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What are the three types of conformity?

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