AS Psychology Methods

HideShow resource information
What is the definition of opportunity sampling?
Using the people available at the time
1 of 126
What is an advantage of opportunity sampling?
quick and convenient
2 of 126
What is a disadvantage of opportunity sampling?
can be biased and unrepresentative, ethics
3 of 126
What is the definition of self-selected sampling?
the participants volunteer to take part in the study
4 of 126
What is an advantage of self-selected sampling?
unbiased, quick & convenient
5 of 126
What is a disadvantage of self-selected sampling?
unrepresentative of target population
6 of 126
What is the definition of random sampling?
each member of the target population has an equal chance of being chosen
7 of 126
What is an advantage of random sampling?
unbiased & representative sample
8 of 126
What is a disadvantage of random sampling?
time consuming
9 of 126
What is an experimental hypothesis?
a hypothesis for an experiment
10 of 126
What is a research hypothesis?
a hypothesis for research other than experiments
11 of 126
What does an alternate hypothesis do?
predicts that there will be a relationship between the IV & DV/co-variables
12 of 126
What does a null hypothesis do?
predicts that there will not be a relationship between the IV & DV/co-variables
13 of 126
What does a one-tailed hypothesis do?
does not predict a direction for the relationship between the IV & DV/co-variables
14 of 126
What does a two-tailed hypothesis do?
predicts the direction of the relationship between the IV & DV/co-variables
15 of 126
What does 'operationalising variables' mean?
making variables measurable
16 of 126
What ethics do studies need to abide by?
informed consent, deception, right to withdraw, harm, privacy, confidentiality
17 of 126
What is an experiment?
A way of studying behaviour that manipulates variables
18 of 126
What is the definition of a lab experiment?
the IV is maniuplated in a controlled environment
19 of 126
What is an advantage of a lab experiment?
it can establish that the IV caused the DV, easy to replicate, fewer extraneous variables
20 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a lab experiment?
can lack EV &have demancd characteristics
21 of 126
What is the definition of a field experiment?
the IV is manipulated in a natural environment
22 of 126
What is an advantage of a field experiment?
High EV & fewer demand characteristics
23 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a field experiment?
can have ethical issues, more ex vs
24 of 126
What is the definition of a quasi experiment?
has a naturally occuring IV
25 of 126
What is an advantage of a quasi experiment?
depends if conducted in lab or field
26 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a quasi experiment?
can't be sure if ex vs are affecting the results
27 of 126
What is the definition of repeated measures?
all participants experience all conditions
28 of 126
What is an advantage of repeated measures?
participant variables do not affect the results, not many participants needed
29 of 126
What is a disadvantage of repeated measures?
demand characteristics and order effects can affect the results
30 of 126
What is the definition of independant measures?
different participants are used for each condition
31 of 126
What is an advantage of independant measures?
there are no demand characteristics or order effects
32 of 126
What is a disadvantage of independant measures?
uses lots of participants, participant variables can affect the results
33 of 126
What is the definition of matched pairs?
participants are put into groups based on characteristics
34 of 126
What is an advantage of matched pairs?
fewer participant variables, no order effects
35 of 126
What is a disadvantage of matched pairs?
needs lots of participants
36 of 126
What is counterbalancing?
a way of avoiding order effects: half the ps experience coniditon A then B, and half experience B then A
37 of 126
What types of validity are there?
face validity, ecological validity, population validity, temporal validity
38 of 126
What is the definition of an observation?
investigations where the researcher observes a situation and records what happens but does not manipulate an independent variable
39 of 126
What is the definition of a covert observation?
Participants do not know they are being observed
40 of 126
What an advantage of a covert observation?
no demand characteristics, high EV
41 of 126
What a disadvantage of a covert observation?
difficult to conduct & remain hidden, ethics
42 of 126
What is the definition of a overt observation?
participants know they are being observed
43 of 126
What an advantage of a overt observation?
no ethical issues
44 of 126
What a disadvantage of a overt observation?
demand characteristics, low EV
45 of 126
What is the definition of a participant observation?
the researcher is a part of the group being observed
46 of 126
What is an advantage of a participant observation?
gives an in-depth and deatiled understanding of behavior & high EV
47 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a participant observation?
ethical issues, not objective, researcher can influence ps
48 of 126
What is the definition of a non-participant observation?
the researcher is not part of the group being observed
49 of 126
What is an advantage of a non-participant observation?
no ethics, objective, won't influence behaviour in terms of suggesting behaviour
50 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a non-participant observation?
low EV, possible demand characteristics, not as in-depth
51 of 126
What is the definition of a structured observation?
an observation that uses a coding cheme to record behaviour
52 of 126
What is an advantage of using a coding scheme?
fairly simple to carry out and that they provide quantitative data which can be analysed statistically.
53 of 126
What is a disadvantage of using a coding scheme?
gives a very restricted view of what is actually happening, might miss behaviour
54 of 126
What is the definition of an unstructured observation?
only behaviour that is seen is recorded
55 of 126
What is an advantage of an unstructured observation?
provides rich qualitative data
56 of 126
What is a disadvantage of an unstructured observation?
can miss behaviour
57 of 126
What is the definition of a naturalistic observation?
An observation conducted in the participant's natural environment
58 of 126
What is an advantage of a naturalistic observation?
higher EV, few demand characteristics
59 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a naturalistic observation?
more Ex Vs, harder to use recording equipment
60 of 126
What is the definition of a controlled observation?
observation conducted in a controlled evironment
61 of 126
What is an advantage of a controlled observation?
fewer Ex Vs, easier to use recording equipment
62 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a controlled observation?
reduced EV, demand characteristics
63 of 126
What is event sampling?
recording behaviour every time it happens
64 of 126
What is a disadvantage of event sampling?
in a large sample, can be difficult to track & record all behaviour, greater change will miss an event
65 of 126
What is an advantage of event sampling?
more representative of unusual behaviour,
66 of 126
What is time sampling?
recording behaviour at a set time, for example every 10 minutes
67 of 126
What is an advantage of time sampling?
easier to watch a large group, less tiring fro observer
68 of 126
What is a disadvantage of time sampling?
cannot record unusual behaviour if it does not occur during the observable periods
69 of 126
What is a self-report?
collecting data by asking participants to answer questions
70 of 126
What is a questionnaire?
a written way of gaining self-report data
71 of 126
What is an advantage of a questionnaire?
quick & easy, cheap for large numbers
72 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a questionnaire?
leading/ambiguous/too many questions, social desirability, low repsonse rate (high participant attrition)
73 of 126
What is an open question?
a question which leaves a space for the ps to write their response
74 of 126
What is an advantage of an open question?
in depth responses, what participant actually thinks
75 of 126
What is a disadvantage of an open question?
can be difficult & time consuming to analyse
76 of 126
What is a closed question?
where ps choose the answer that best fits them
77 of 126
What is an advantage of a closed question?
easy to score & analyse
78 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a closed question?
restricted range of responses, ps forced to respond in one way, not detailed
79 of 126
What is a likert scale?
scales that are rated using description (strongly agree/ strongly disagree)
80 of 126
What is an advantage of a likert scale?
can be treated as numbers - easy to analyse
81 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a likert scale?
force ps to have an opinion if even scale
82 of 126
What is a rating scale?
asks ps to rate things on a number scale (1-10)
83 of 126
What is an advantage of a rating scale?
more depth than yes/no, easy to analyse
84 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a rating scale?
forces ps to be positive or negattive if even scale
85 of 126
What is an interview?
self reports conducted face to face, written down on the spot, or recorded and transcribed
86 of 126
What is an advantage of an interview?
ps feel more comfortable discussing questions in person than questionnaire
87 of 126
What is a disadvantage of an interview?
ps can't be anonymous, evalutation anxiety, social desirability
88 of 126
What is a structured interview?
where set questions are asked to each participant in the same order
89 of 126
What is an advantage of a structured interview?
easier to gather quant. data than a clinical interview, so easier to analyse
90 of 126
What is a disadvantage of a structured interview?
artificial, evaluation anxiety, social desirability, less depth, can't follow up interesting answers
91 of 126
What is an unstructured interview?
uses a list of prompts, questions asked based on ps answers
92 of 126
What is an advantage of an unstructured interview?
gather in-depth qual. data
93 of 126
What is a disadvantage of an unstructured interview?
likely to cover broad range of topics so harder to compare & analyse results of diff. ps.
94 of 126
What psychometric tests are there?
IQ, personality, mood scales, attitude scales, aptitude scales
95 of 126
What factors can affect validity in self-reports?
social desirability, interveiwer bias, leading & ambigous questions, content validity, population validity
96 of 126
What is Inter Rater Reliability?
making sure that two observers or raters produce the same results.
97 of 126
What do correlations use instead of IV/DV?
co-variables
98 of 126
What is positive correlation?
As one variable increases, so the does the other
99 of 126
What is negative correlation?
As one variable decreases, so does the other
100 of 126
What is no correlation?
there seems to be no relationship between the variables
101 of 126
What is a correlation?
A method that estabilshes a relationship between variables, NOT cause & effect
102 of 126
What is the advantages of correlations?
they can tell us soemthing new about exsiting data, they can be used where ethics are an issue for experiments, they can act as a starting point for other investigations
103 of 126
What are the disadvantages of correlations?
do not show cause and effect, other variables could explain relationship, can't explain why there is a relationship
104 of 126
How can hypothesis be used for correlations?
H1: there will be a correlation... Ho: there will be no correlation... one tailed: there will be a positive correlation...
105 of 126
What is the mean?
the average. the sum of all the numbers divided by the no. of participants
106 of 126
What are the strengths of a mean?
uses all values, most representative
107 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a mean?
not good for nomial data, unprepresentative of extreme values
108 of 126
What is the median?
middle score of all results in ascending order
109 of 126
What are the strengths of a median?
unaffected by extreme values
110 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a median?
not as sensitive, not good for nominal values, ignores outliers
111 of 126
What is the mode?
value that appears most often
112 of 126
What are the strengths of a mode?
can be used with any type of data, easy
113 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a mode?
not useful if various values appear lots, not useful for small sets of data
114 of 126
What is the Range?
The spread of data or largest - smallest
115 of 126
What are the strengths of a range?
easy to calculate
116 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a range?
may be affected by exvs, doesn't indicate how tightly/widely spread data is
117 of 126
What is the standard deviation?
how much the data deviates from the mean
118 of 126
What are the strengths of a standard deviation?
more precise than range as uses all data, allows researcher to know how much scores vary
119 of 126
What are the weaknesses of a standard deviation?
more difficult to calculate, extreme data not relevant
120 of 126
What are the strengths of self-reports?
can be used to collect a range of qual & quant data, find out ps perception of data, not always possible to observe behaviour
121 of 126
What are the weaknesses of self-reports?
ps suffer evalutaion anxiety/social desirability/response bais, leading/ambiguous questions, difficult to ask qs in reliable way
122 of 126
What are the strengths of observations?
natural = high EV, records how people actually behaviour (rather than how they say they will), can produce hypothesis for further testing
123 of 126
What are the weaknesses of observations?
can't establish cause & effect \ IV&DV (none), difficult to record data in reliable way, IRR, observer bias
124 of 126
What are the strengths of experiments?
more control over Ex Vs, establishes cause & effect, standardised procedure
125 of 126
What are the weaknesses of experiments?
total control over ExVs not possible, low EV, sampling/experimenter bias & demand characteristics
126 of 126

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is an advantage of opportunity sampling?

Back

quick and convenient

Card 3

Front

What is a disadvantage of opportunity sampling?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the definition of self-selected sampling?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an advantage of self-selected sampling?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

MrsMacLean

This is a really helpful way of testing yourself; helps you see what you need to work on! Thanks 

Zoe Lax

some of these are incorrect and can be damaging to learn

blennox

the definitions of one tailed and two tailed hypothesis are wrong and should be amended at earliest possible point

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Research methods and techniques resources »