AS Psychology Core Studies (section A/B)

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Aim of Sperry?
Investigate hemisphere disconnection to show different functions
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Sample of Sperry?
11 Split brain patients who suffered with epilepsy.
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Method of Sperry?
Tasks such as sending visual image to one hemisphere and asking them to say what the image is.
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Results of Sperry?
1) Can't recognise images in 2 different visual fields/2) right hand draw right visual field/3) left hand draw left VF.
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Approach of Sperry?
Physiological approach
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Approach of Maguire?
Physiological approach
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Aim of Maguire?
Investigate if there are changes in London taxi drivers hippocampus and the functions of HC in spatial memory.
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Sample of Maguire?
16 London taxi drivers + 50 Non-taxi drivers
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Method of Maguire?
Mri scans, VBM measures grey matter + Pixel counting, correlation.
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Results of Maguire?
Taxi Drivers ^ grey matter and only difference with control is ^ volume in posterior hippocampus
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Approach of Dement and Kleitman?
Physiological approach
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Aim of Dement and Kleitman?
See the relationship between eye movement and dreaming
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Sample of Dement and Kleitman?
7 males 2 females
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Method of Dement and Kleitman?
Normal bedtime, avoid alcohol and caffeine, EEG + woken to recall dreams in REM and Non-REM
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Results of Dement and Kleitman?
REM = dreaming sleep/guessed correct dream duration/Vertical eye movements =climbing ladders/Hori eye moments =throwing tomatos
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Approach of Rosenhan?
Individual Difference Approach
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Aim of Rosenhan?
See if psychiatrists can tell the difference between sane and insane
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Sample of Rosenhan?
Staff in 12 different USA hospitals in 5 different states
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Method 1 of Rosenhan?
8 Pseudo patients hearing voices 'thud' 'hollow' 'empty'. Stopped symptoms and made notes.
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Results 1 of Rosenhan?
35 patients suspected sanity/"patient engages in writing behaviour"/"oral-acquisitive syndrome"
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Method 2 of Rosenhan?
Falsely informed hospital will be admitting pseudo patients
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Results 2 of Rosenhan?
41/193 confidently judged as pseudo patient
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Approach of Griffiths?
Individual DIfferences approach
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Aim of Griffiths?
Investigate cognitive bias in gambling addiction
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Sample of Griffiths?
Regular gamblers; 29 males 1 female/ Non regular gamblers 15 males 15 females// half thinking aloud
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Method of Griffiths?
£3 on 'fruitskill' attempt 60 gambles/gambling behaviour recorded/semi-structured interviews on skill
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Results of Griffiths?
Reg gamblers more percieved skill but same objective skill/ reg gamblers more irrational verbalisations/RGs more flexible attributions
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Approach of Thigpen and Cleckley?
Individual differences approach
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Aim of Thigpen and Cleckley?
account of treatment of 25 year old eve white suffering with severe headaches and blackouts
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Sample of Thigpen and Cleckley?
25 year old Eve White
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Method of Thigpen and Cleckley?
100 hours of interviews, hypnosis, observation, EEG tests, intelligence/memory/ink blot tests
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Results of Thigpen and Cleckley?
EB = carefree+ mischievous Jane = more responsible/ IQ; EB-104 EW-110/ EB- regressive EW-repressive
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Approach of Milgram?
Social approach
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Aim of Milgram?
See whether people obey authority
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Sample of Milgram?
40 males from New Haven - newspaper advert at Yale University
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Method of Milgram?
rigged draw - p always teacher, sample shock, word pairs wrong =shocks, 300v+350v pound on wall + no reply, prods "please go on"
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Results of Milgram?
65% obeyed to 450v/ signs of nervousness and tension
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Approach of Reicher and Haslam?
Social Approach
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Aim of Reicher and Haslam?
Investigate behaviour of unequal groups in terms of status, power and resources
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Sample of Reicher and Haslam?
15 males (5 guards, 10 prisoners)
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Method of Reicher and Haslam?
Psychometric tests/weekend assessment/medical ref... 9 prisoners at start, video + audio recorded, prisoner promo day 3, new prisoner day 4, told g's and p's no different day 6
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Results of Reicher and Haslam?
day 3 - identify with groups/ day 6 - guards overthrown/ new self governing commune/strict regime/ terminated day 8 due to ethics
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Approach of Piliavin?
Social Approach
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Aim of Piliavin?
See effect of; type of victim/race of victim and see the speed, frequency and race of helper
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Sample of Piliavin?
Approx 4450 ps on the New York Underground
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Method of Piliavin?
Female confess outside critical area, falls after 70 seconds. Critical area early (70 secs) Critical area late (150 secs), adjacent area early, adjacent area late, 38 drunk trials, 65 cane trials
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Results of Piliavin?
60% of 81 spontaneous help, 62/65 cane helped, 19/38 drunk help, 90% helpers male
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Approach of Savage Rumbaugh?
Cognitive approach
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Aim of Savage Rumbaugh?
results of 1st longitudinal attempt of language acquisition of pygmy chimps
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Method of Savage Rumbaugh?
Kanzi - lexigrams age 6 month, observation, select food to indicate location, formal controlled tests
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Results of Savage Rumbaugh?
6+ 16 month - spontaneous gestures/ Mulika 14 months - milk, cake, cherry/ Kanzi - 46 words/Mulika - 37 words/ Kanzi - Ice water go
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Approach of Baron-Cohen?
Cognitive Approach
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Aim of Baron-Cohen?
Investigate if high functioning autistic adults have impaired theory of mind
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Sample of Baron-Cohen?
16 autistic p's/ 50 normal ps/ 10 tourettes
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Method of Baron-Cohen?
Autistic + Tourettes pass 1st and 2nd order false belief tasks/ all do eyes task, strange stories + 2 control tasks
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Results of Baron-Cohen?
Normal Eyes task - 20.3/ tourettes - 20.4/ Autistic-16.3
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Approach of Loftus?
Cognitive Approach
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Aim of Loftus?
how info after an even influences eye witness memory
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Sample of Loftus (1+2)?
45 Washington Uni Students + 150 Students
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Method 1 of Loftus?
video clips "about how fast were the cars going when they ______ each other?" (smashed, collided, bumped, hit, contacted)
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Results 1 of Loftus?
Smashed - 40.8/ Contacted - 31.8
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Method 2 of Loftus?
4 second accident 3 groups, (Hit, smashed, contacted)/ "did you see any broken glass?"
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Results 2 of Loftus?
yes + smashed=16/no+smashed= 34/yes + control = 6/no + control = 44
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Approach of Freud?
Developmental Approach
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Aim of Freud?
treatment of 5 year old boy + phobia of horses/ prove oedipus complex + phalic stage
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Method of Freud?
Case study - father observed and interviewed little hans sending info to freud via correspondence.
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Results of Freud?
Interest in 'widdlers', castration anxiety, fear of horses (blinkers), giraffe fantasy, children fantasy + plumbers fantasy (resolved)
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Approach of Samuel and Bryant?
Developmental Approach
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Aim of Samuel and Bryant?
Challenge Piaget's findings by altering method
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Sample of Samuel and Bryant?
252 children
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Method of Samuel and Bryant?
Split into; 5,6,7,8/1Q,2Q, fixed array. All do number/volume/mass systematically varied.
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Results of Samuel and Bryant?
One question =easier, older = less errors, number = less errors
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Approach of Bandura?
Developmental Approach
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AIm of Bandura?
See whether children imitate aggressive behaviour
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Sample of Bandura?
36 girls 36 boys - mean age 4 years 4 months
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Method of Bandura?
agg rated on 5 point scale/ room 1 see model/ room 2 mild aggression arousal/ room 3 5 second interval observation 20 minutes.
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Results of Bandura?
aggressive conditions = more agg responses/ mores more physically agg/ male model more influential
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Sample of Sperry?

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11 Split brain patients who suffered with epilepsy.

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Method of Sperry?

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Card 4

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Results of Sperry?

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Card 5

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Approach of Sperry?

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