# AS Physics Definitions

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- Created by: Laura
- Created on: 04-03-15 13:51

Newton

Force is one newton when a 1kg mass has an acceleration of 1m/s^2

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Torque of a Couple

One of the forces x perpendicular distance between the forces

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Moment of a Force

Force x perpendicular distance from the pivot

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Thinking Distance

Distance traveled by a car from when the driver sees a problem and the brakes are applied

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Braking Distance

Distance traveled by a car between when the brakes are applied and when the car stops

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Work Done

Force x distance moved in the direction of the force

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Joule

Energy transferred when 1 newton is applied over 1 metre

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Power

Rate of work done

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Watt

When 1 joule of energy is transferred in 1 second

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Stress

Force on a wire/cross-sectional area

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Strain

Ratio of extension/original length

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Young Modulus

Stress/Strain

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Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS)

Maximum stress a material can withstand before fracture

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Elastic Deformation

A material undergoes elastic deformation when a force is applied to it and it deforms, then when the force is removed it goes back to its original shape

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Plastic Deformation

A material undergoes plastic deformation when a force is applied to and it deforms, then when the force is removed it doesn't return to its original shape. It is permanently deformed.

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Hooke's Law

When the extension of a spring is directly proportional to the force applied provided the elastic limit is not reached.

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Coulomb

The amount of charge that passes in one second when the current is 1 ampere

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Mean Drift Velocity

The average distance traveled of the electrons along the wire per second

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Potential Difference (p.d.)

Energy transferred per unit charge from electrical energy to other forms

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Electromotive Force (e.m.f)

Energy transferred per unit charge from one form to electrical energy

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Resistance

Potential difference/current

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Ohm

The resistance of a component when a potential difference of 1 volt is produced per ampere of current

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Ohm's Law

Current is proportional to potential difference at a constant temperature

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Kilowatt-hour (kWh)

A unit of energy equal to 3.6MJ

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Kirchoff's First Law

The total current entering a junction = the total current leaving it. Charge is conserved

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Kirchoff's Second Law

The total emf around a series circuit = the sum of the potential differences across each component. Energy is conserved

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Progressive Wave

A transfer of energy as a result of oscillations of the source

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Phase Difference

A measure of how far "out of step" two points on the same wave are from each other

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Range of Visible Light

Less than 400nm = UV, 400nm = violet/blue, 700nm = red, more than 700nm = Infrared

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Principle of Superposition

When two waves meet at a point the resultant displacement is the vector sum of the individual displacements

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Malus's Law

I=I(0)cos^2(x) where I = intensity received and I(0) = initial intensity,x = angle the plane has been rotated

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Interference

When two waves meet and superpose, the resultant displacement is the vector sum of the individual displacements

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Coherence

Constant phase difference between waves

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Path Difference

The extra number of wavelengths a wave must travel from one source to another

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Constructive Interference

When two waves meet and superpose their resultant displacement is greater than their individual displacements

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Destructive Interference

When two waves meet and superpose their resultant displacement is smaller than their individual displacements

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Diffraction

When a wave spreads out after passing through a gap or around an obstacle

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Node

A point on a stationary wave of no displacement (0 amplitude)

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Anti-Node

A point on a stationary wave where the particles vibrate with maximum amplitude

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Fundamental Node of Vibration

The lowest frequency wave that produces a stationary wave in a particular system

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Harmonics

A multiple of the fundamental node of vibration when a stationary wave is produced in a system

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Photon

Quantum of energy of electromagnetic radiation

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Work Function

The minimum energy required to release an electron from the surface of a metal

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Threshold Frequency

Minimum frequency a photon must have to free an electron from the surface of a metal (work function/planck's constant)

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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

One of the forces x perpendicular distance between the forces

#### Back

Torque of a Couple

### Card 3

#### Front

Force x perpendicular distance from the pivot

#### Back

### Card 4

#### Front

Distance traveled by a car from when the driver sees a problem and the brakes are applied

#### Back

### Card 5

#### Front

Distance traveled by a car between when the brakes are applied and when the car stops

#### Back

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