# AS Physics Definitions

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• Created by: Laura
• Created on: 04-03-15 13:51
Newton
Force is one newton when a 1kg mass has an acceleration of 1m/s^2
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Torque of a Couple
One of the forces x perpendicular distance between the forces
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Moment of a Force
Force x perpendicular distance from the pivot
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Thinking Distance
Distance traveled by a car from when the driver sees a problem and the brakes are applied
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Braking Distance
Distance traveled by a car between when the brakes are applied and when the car stops
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Work Done
Force x distance moved in the direction of the force
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Joule
Energy transferred when 1 newton is applied over 1 metre
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Power
Rate of work done
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Watt
When 1 joule of energy is transferred in 1 second
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Stress
Force on a wire/cross-sectional area
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Strain
Ratio of extension/original length
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Young Modulus
Stress/Strain
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Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS)
Maximum stress a material can withstand before fracture
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Elastic Deformation
A material undergoes elastic deformation when a force is applied to it and it deforms, then when the force is removed it goes back to its original shape
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Plastic Deformation
A material undergoes plastic deformation when a force is applied to and it deforms, then when the force is removed it doesn't return to its original shape. It is permanently deformed.
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Hooke's Law
When the extension of a spring is directly proportional to the force applied provided the elastic limit is not reached.
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Coulomb
The amount of charge that passes in one second when the current is 1 ampere
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Mean Drift Velocity
The average distance traveled of the electrons along the wire per second
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Potential Difference (p.d.)
Energy transferred per unit charge from electrical energy to other forms
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Electromotive Force (e.m.f)
Energy transferred per unit charge from one form to electrical energy
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Resistance
Potential difference/current
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Ohm
The resistance of a component when a potential difference of 1 volt is produced per ampere of current
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Ohm's Law
Current is proportional to potential difference at a constant temperature
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Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
A unit of energy equal to 3.6MJ
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Kirchoff's First Law
The total current entering a junction = the total current leaving it. Charge is conserved
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Kirchoff's Second Law
The total emf around a series circuit = the sum of the potential differences across each component. Energy is conserved
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Progressive Wave
A transfer of energy as a result of oscillations of the source
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Phase Difference
A measure of how far "out of step" two points on the same wave are from each other
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Range of Visible Light
Less than 400nm = UV, 400nm = violet/blue, 700nm = red, more than 700nm = Infrared
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Principle of Superposition
When two waves meet at a point the resultant displacement is the vector sum of the individual displacements
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Malus's Law
I=I(0)cos^2(x) where I = intensity received and I(0) = initial intensity,x = angle the plane has been rotated
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Interference
When two waves meet and superpose, the resultant displacement is the vector sum of the individual displacements
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Coherence
Constant phase difference between waves
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Path Difference
The extra number of wavelengths a wave must travel from one source to another
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Constructive Interference
When two waves meet and superpose their resultant displacement is greater than their individual displacements
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Destructive Interference
When two waves meet and superpose their resultant displacement is smaller than their individual displacements
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Diffraction
When a wave spreads out after passing through a gap or around an obstacle
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Node
A point on a stationary wave of no displacement (0 amplitude)
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Anti-Node
A point on a stationary wave where the particles vibrate with maximum amplitude
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Fundamental Node of Vibration
The lowest frequency wave that produces a stationary wave in a particular system
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Harmonics
A multiple of the fundamental node of vibration when a stationary wave is produced in a system
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Photon
Quantum of energy of electromagnetic radiation
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Work Function
The minimum energy required to release an electron from the surface of a metal
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Threshold Frequency
Minimum frequency a photon must have to free an electron from the surface of a metal (work function/planck's constant)
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

One of the forces x perpendicular distance between the forces

#### Back

Torque of a Couple

### Card 3

#### Front

Force x perpendicular distance from the pivot

### Card 4

#### Front

Distance traveled by a car from when the driver sees a problem and the brakes are applied

### Card 5

#### Front

Distance traveled by a car between when the brakes are applied and when the car stops