As level biology- initial assessment revsion 2

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ATP
Adenosine triphosphate – a molecule used to store energy temporarily in organisms. The molecule is broken down to adenosine diphosphate + phosphate to release energy to drive metabolic processes.
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Cellulose
A carbohydrate polymer (of β-glucose) that forms plant cell walls.
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Centriole
An organelle from which the spindle fibres develop during cell division in animal cells.
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Chlorophyll
Pigments found in chloroplasts of plant (and some protoctist) cells. Each molecule consists of a hydrocarbon tail and a porphyrin ring head with a magnesium atom. Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light, trapping the energy, and reflects green light.
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Chloroplast
An organelle found in plants, which contains chlorophyll and is responsible for photosynthetic activity in the plant.
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Chromatin
Material staining dark red in the nucleus during interphase of mitosis and meiosis. It consists of nucleic acids and proteins. Chromatin condenses into chromosomes during prophase of nucler division.
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Cilia
Short extensions of eukaryotic cells, typically 2–10 µm long and 0.03 µm in diameter. They may be used for locomotion or to move fluids or mucus over a surface, for example in the mammalian respiratory tract.
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Concentration gradient
The difference in concentration of a substance between two regions.
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Cristae
The folds found in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. Stalked particles containing ATP synthase are found on cristae.
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Cytoskeleton
The network of protein fibres and microtubules found within the cell that gives structure to the cell and is responsible for the movement of many materials within it.
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Diffusion
The net movement of molecules or ions in a gas or liquid from an area of high concentration to an area where they are less concentrated.
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Diffusion gradient
The gradient in molecular concentration (the difference in concentrations) that allows diffusion to occur.
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid – a polymer of nucleotide molecules that form the instructions for the synthesis of proteins found within organisms. These nucleotides contain the 5-carbon sugar deoxyribose.
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
A series of membrane-bound, flattened sacs extending from the outer nuclear membrane through the cytoplasm. It may appear rough (rough ER) when ribosomes are attached to the outer surface, and it is involved with synthesis of proteins. It may appear
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Endothelium
A tissue that lines the inside of a structure, such as a blood vessel.
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Epidermis
Outer layer(s) of cells of a multicellular organism. Plants have a single layer surrounding the tissues of roots, stems and leaves. Invertebrates have an epidermis made of a single layer of cells that secrete a cuticle. Vertebrate (including mammals)
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Epithelium
A tissue that covers the outside of a structure.
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Eukaryotic cell
Cells that have a nucleus inside a nuclear envelope, and other membrane-bound organelles.
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Exocytosis
The process of removing materials from the cell by fusing vesicles containing the material with the plasma membrane (cell surface membrane).
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Facilitated diffusion
The passive movement of molecules across membranes down their concentration gradient, which is aided by transport (carrier) protein molecules. No metabolic energy is required.
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Flaccid
Flaccid
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Golgi body
Membrane-bound organelle in eukaryote cells. Its functions are: to modify proteins, made at the rough endoplasmic reticulum, into glycoproteins; to package proteins for secretions outside the cell; to make lysosomes; in plant cells to secrete carbohy
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Guard cells
In pairs, these form the stomatal pore in the epidermis plants. They control the opening and closing of the pore by changes in their turgidity.
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Histone
Type of protein associated with DNA in eukaryotes. DNA is wound around histone proteins to form chromatin.
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Lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell activated as part of the immune response.
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Lysosomes
Membrane-bound vesicles made by pinching off from the Golgi body. They usually contain digestive enzymes.
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Macrophages
Large, phagocytic, Amoeba-like white blood cells that engulf, ingest and destroy bacteria, damaged cells and worn-out red blood cells.
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Magnification
The number of time greater an image is than the object.
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Messenger RNA (mRNA)
A type of RNA polynucleotide involved in protein synthesis. Carries the information coding for a polypeptide from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
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Microtubules
Components of the cell cytoskeleton. They have a diameter of about 24 nm and length varying from several micrometres in most cells to possibly several millimetres in some nerve cells. Microtubules are involved in mitosis, cytokinesis and movement of
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Microvilli
Folds in the membrane of a cell that increase its surface area.
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Mitochondrion (pl: mitochondria)
The organelle found in cells in which most of the ATP synthesis occurs. It is the site of aerobic respiration.
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Nuclear envelope
The double membrane structure surrounding the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.
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Nucleic acid
A polymer of nucleotide molecules.
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Nucleus
A large, membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells, which contains the genetic material in the form of chromosomes.
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Organelle
Structure inside a cell. Each organelle has a specific function.
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Osmosis
The movement of water molecules from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential across a partially permeable membrane.
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Partially permeable membrane
A membrane that will allow some molecules to pass through but will not allow some others to pass through.
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Phagocyte
A cell that can carry out phagocytosis and ingest bacteria or small particles. Macrophages and neutrophils are phagocytes.
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Phagosome
A vacuole inside a phagocyte which is created by an infolding of the plasma (cell surface) membrane to engulf a foreign particle. The foreign particle is held inside the phagosome.
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Phospholipid
A molecule consisting of a glycerol molecule, two fatty acid molecules and a phosphate group covalently bonded together. Phospholipids form the basis of cell membranes.
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Plasma cells
Mature β-lymphocytes (white blood cells) that secrete a specific kind of antibody.
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Plasma membrane / cell surface membrane
The membrane that surrounds every cell, forming the selectively permeable boundary between the cell and its environment. It is made up of a double layer of phospholipids with embedded proteins.
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Prokaryote
An organism with cells that do not contain a true nucleus.
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Protein
A polymer consisting of many amino acid monomers covalently bonded together.
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Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA found in ribosomes.
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Ribosome
The organelle on which proteins are synthesised inside the cell.
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RNA
Ribonucleic acid – a single-stranded polynucleotide molecule that exists in three forms. Each form plays a part in the synthesis of proteins within cells.
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Secretion
The release of a substance made inside the cell using the process of exocytosis.
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Stoma (pl: stomata)
Pore in leaf epidermis, surrounded by two guard cells. Changes in turgidity of the guard cells can open or close the stoma. Stomata allow gaseous exchange in plants and also allow transpiration.
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Stroma
The gel-like matrix found in chloroplasts. The membranes of the thylakoids/grana are embedded in the stroma.
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Surface tension
The ‘skin’ on the surface of water formed as a result of hydrogen bonding in water molecules pulling the surface molecules downwards.
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Surfactant
A chemical that can reduce the surface tension of a film of water.
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Thylakoid
Flattened membrane sacs found in chloroplasts, which hold the pigments used in photosynthesis and are the site of the light reactions of photosynthesis. A stack of thylakoids forms a granum.
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Transcription
The assembly of an mRNA molecule that is a copy of the DNA coding strand (and complementary to the template strand).
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Transfer RNA (tRNA)
A type of RNA polynucleotide involved in protein synthesis. It transports amino acids to the ribosomes to be added to the growing polypeptide chain.
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Turgid
Describes a cell that is full of water as a result of entry of water due to osmosis. When the pressure of the cell wall prevents more water entering, the cell is said to be turgid.
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Ultrastructure
The detailed structure of the internal components of cells as revealed by the electron microscope rather than by the light microscope. Sometimes called fine structure.
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Vesicle
A membrane-bound sac found in cells and used to transport materials around the cell.
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Card 2

Front

A carbohydrate polymer (of β-glucose) that forms plant cell walls.

Back

Cellulose

Card 3

Front

An organelle from which the spindle fibres develop during cell division in animal cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Pigments found in chloroplasts of plant (and some protoctist) cells. Each molecule consists of a hydrocarbon tail and a porphyrin ring head with a magnesium atom. Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light, trapping the energy, and reflects green light.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An organelle found in plants, which contains chlorophyll and is responsible for photosynthetic activity in the plant.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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