AS Geography Cold Environments Key Words

Environment where areas of land are permanently covered by ice
Glacial
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Environment where the temperature is frequently or constantly below freezing, but not covered by ice
Periglacial
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Type of environment that are cold areas of land at an altitude above the treeline
Alpine
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The input of snow and ice into the glacial system
Accumulation
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The output of water from a glacier
Ablation
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The balance between accumulation and ablation over a year
Glacial budget
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The upper part of a glacier where there is more accumulation than ablation
Zone of accumulation
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The lower part of a glacier where there is more ablation than accumulation
Zone of ablation
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The place where accumulation and ablation are equal
Equilibrium point
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Where the ice bends and warps to flow downhill like a liquid
Internal deformation
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Where layers of ice slip downwards due to gravity
Extensional flow
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Where layers of ice slip forwards due to slow movement lower down the glacier
Compressional flow
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When glaciers move in an arc shape when they are in a hollow
Rotational flow
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Meltwater underneath a glacier allows it to slide over the ground
Basal slippage
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Cracked formed in the glacier by stresses and strains
Crevasses
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Semicircular crevasse at the back of the glacier
Bergschrund
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Ice thaws and refreezes around rocks, pulling them away when it moves forward
Plucking
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Debris carried along by the glacier can scrape material off the valley walls and floor
Abrasion
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Rocks break off the back and side walls of the valley when meltwater gets into the cracks and freezes
Frost shattering
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Type of material carried on top of the glacier
Supraglacial
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Type of material carried within the body of the glacier
Englacial
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Type of material moved along at the base of the glacier
Subglacial
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The unsorted mixture of material deposited by the glacier
Till
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Type of till dropped by the glacier as it melts
Ablation
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Type of till spread onto the valley floor beneath the ice by moving glaciers
Lodgement
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A steep-sided ridge
Arete
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Pointed mountain peak with at least three sides
Pyramidal peak
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Steep-sided valleys with flat bottoms
Glacial troughs
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Lake that forms in a corrie after a glacier has retreated
Tarn
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A long thin lake that forms after a glacier retreats
Ribbon lake
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A long deep inlet that forms when a valley that has been eroded is flooded
Fjord
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Moraine deposited where the sides of the glacier were
Lateral
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Moraine deposited in the centre of the valley where two glaciers converge
Medial
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Moraine that builds up at the end of the glacier
Terminal
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Half-egg shaped hill of till
Drumlin
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Rocks that have been picked up by a glacier or an ice sheet
Erratic
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A long, winding ridge of sand and gravel that run in the same direction as a glacier
Esker
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A mound of sand and gravel found on the valley floor
Kame
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A pile of deposits left against the valley wall by meltwater streams that run between the glacier and the valley sides
Kame terrace
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A lake that forms in front of the glacier
Proglacial
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Permanently frozen ground
Permafrost
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When temperatures drop and the ground contracts and cracks
Frost contraction
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A pingo that forms where there is discontinuous permafrost
Open system
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A pingo that forms in areas of continuous permafrost
Closed system
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Environment where the temperature is frequently or constantly below freezing, but not covered by ice

Back

Periglacial

Card 3

Front

Type of environment that are cold areas of land at an altitude above the treeline

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The input of snow and ice into the glacial system

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The output of water from a glacier

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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