AS Biology Unit 2; Module 1+: Biological Molecules.

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What are the six required nutrients for life?
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins & Minerals, Nucleic Acids and Water.
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What do nutrients drive within our body?
Our metabolism.
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All biological molecules with the exception of water within our body consist of?
Carbon.
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Metabolism refers to?
The sum total of all the chemical reactions that take place in an organism.
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What is the sharing of electrons referred to as?
Covalent Bonding.
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What are the present bonds in hydrocarbon chains?
C=C Carbon double bonding.
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What does the term monomer refer to?
A single, small molecule, many of which can be joined to form a polymer.
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What is the monomer of Proteins?
Amino Acids.
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What is the monomer of Nucleic Acids?
Nucleotides.
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What type of bonding makes water a very special molecule?
Hydrogen Bonding.
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Carbohydrates make up about what percentage of the organic matter of a cell?
10%.
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What is the energy source of carbohydrate in the cell?
Glucose released during respiration.
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Two monosaccharide molecules can be joined together in a _________ reaction?
Condensation.
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What does combining two monosaccharide molecules create?
A Disaccharide.
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A new bond formed between two monosaccharide molecules is called?
A Glycosidic Bond.
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All monosaccharides have three common properties. What are they?
They are soluble in water, are sweet tasting and form crystals.
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What can be made from the release of energy in respiration?
ATP.
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Cellulose is found where?
In plants.
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Which is the most abundant structural polysaccharide in nature?
Cellulose.
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What does the arrangement of macrofibrils allows water to what?
Move through and along cell walls, and water can pass in and out of the cell easily.
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Name two Monosaccharides.
Glucose and Deoxyribose.
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Name a Disaccharide.
Maltose.
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What is Maltose composed of? What type of Saccharide is it?
Glucose + Glucose; Disaccharide.
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Name two Polysaccharides.
Starch and Glycogen, Cellulose.
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Proteins make up what percentage of the cell?
50%.
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Proteins have many functions. Name 5 of them.
1) They are structural components e.g muscle and bone. 2) They are membrane carriers and pores, e.g active transport and facilitated diffusion. 3) All enzymes are proteins. 4) Many hormones are proteins. 5) Antibodies are proteins.
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Animals cannot store excess amino acids, so the amino group is removed by?
Deamination.
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The Amino groups removed are converted to what substance?
Urea.
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What type of bond forms when amino acids are joined together?
Peptide Bonds.
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Two amino acids joined together form a what?
Dipeptide.
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Polypeptides and proteins are made (synthesised) in cells on what?
Ribosomes.
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Enzymes that catalyse the breaking of peptide bonds are known as ______ enzymes?
Protease.
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To make a specific protein, _____ ______ must be bonded together in a specifc sequence. This is determined by the _____?
1) Amino acids 2) DNA.
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What is the primary structure of amino acids that forms the protein?
The sequence of amino acids.
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What happens to the primary structure of amino acids to form the secondary structure?
The chain of amino acids coils to form an alpha helix, or folds to form a beta pleated sheet.
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A hormone must be a specific shape to fit into the what?
Hormone Receptor.
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An enzyme must have what?
An active site; which is complementary to that of its substrate.
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Heating a protein increases the what in the molecule?
Kinetic Energy.
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Heating a protein raises ______ ______ which causes the molecule to ______.
1) Kinetic Energy. 2) Vibrate.
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Vibration of a protein upon heating which increases kinetic energy causes what?
It breaks some of the bonds holding the tertiary structure in place.
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If enough heat is applied to a protein (tertiary), the structure can unravel and the process can no longer functuion. This process is called?
Denaturation.
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The 3d shape of proteins fall into two main categories. These are?
Globular Proteins and Fibrous Proteins.
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Which type of protein tend to roll up ionto a compact globe?
Globular Proteins.
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In Globular proteins, what happens to the hydrophobic R-groups, and the hydrophilic R-groups? This positioning makes the protein _____ _____.
The hydrophobic R-groups are turned inwards towards the centre of the structure. The hydrophilic R-Groups tend to be on the outside. This makes the protein 1) water soluble.
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Fibrous proteins form fibres. What makes them specifically different from Globular proteins other than their structure?
Most have regular, repetitive sequences of amino acids and are usually insoluble in water.
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Give two examples of quaternary proteins.
Haemoglobin and Insulin.
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What happens when alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets further coil or fold?
The tertiary structure is formed.
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The haem group is not made of amino acids, but it is an essential part of the molecule. Such groups are found in a number of groups. What are these groups called?
Prosthetic groups.
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Collagen is made of how many polypeptide chains?
Three.
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Lipids are a source of energy. They can be ______ to release energy and release _____.
1) Respired 2) ATP.
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Unsaturated fatty acids have C=C bonds so fewer what molecules can be bonded to the molecule?
Hydrogen.
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What type of bond is formed in a tryglyceride?
Ester bonds.
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Cholesterol is a type of what?
Lipid.
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Name three steroid hormoes made of cholesterol.
Testorone, Oestrogen and Vitamin D.
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What do nutrients drive within our body?

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Our metabolism.

Card 3

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All biological molecules with the exception of water within our body consist of?

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Card 4

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Metabolism refers to?

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Card 5

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What is the sharing of electrons referred to as?

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