AS Biology F211 Keywords

  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 04-03-14 11:57
Define magnification
The number of times larger an image is than the actual object
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Define resolution
The ability to distinguish between 2 objects very close together
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Define cell signalling
Communication between 1 cell and another by means of chemicals to bring out a respone in the cell
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Define diffusion
The net movement of molecules or ions down its concentration gradient - PASSIVE
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Define facillitated diffusion
Diffusion of a substance through protein channels which provide hydrophilic pathways - PASSIVE
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Define osmosis
The net movement of water molecules from an area of high ᴪ to an area of low ᴪ though a partially permeable membrane
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Define active transport
The movement of molecules or ions through transport proteins against their concentration gradient - USES ATP
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Define endocytosis
The movement of bulk liquids or solids into a cell, by the indentation of the PM to form vesicles containing the substance - USES ATP
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Define exocytosis
The movement of bulk liquid out of a cell by the fusion of the vesicle with the PM - USES ATP
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Define homologous pair of chromosomes
A pair of chromosomes in a diploid cell that have the same structure as eachother with same genes at same loci
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Define stem cell
A cell that has not differentiated and is able to divide to form specialised types of cells
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Define differentiation
The development of a cell to become specialised for a particular function
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Define tissue
A layer or group of cells of similar type, which together perform a particular function
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Define organ
A group of different tissues that work together to perform a particular function
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Define organ system
A group of organs that work together to carry out a function
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Define tidal volume
The volume of air breathed in and out in 1 breath
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Define vital capacity
The maximum volume of air that can be breathed in and out in 1 breath
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Define single circulatory system
A circulatory system in which the blood only passes through the heart once in a complete circuit of the body
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Define double circulatory system
Two circuits, systemic and pulmanory circulation; in which the blood passes through the heart twice in a complete circuit of the body
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Define closed circulatory system
A circulatory system in which the blood is always enclosed in blood vessels
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Define open circulatory system
A circulatory system in which the blood is not contained within vessels
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Define the Bohr effect
The decrease in the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen in the presence of carbon dioxide
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Define transpiration
The movement of water vapour out of a leaf
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Define transpiration stream
The continuous movement of water from soil up through to xylem to the air
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Define assimilates
Substances synthesised by a plant during or following photosynthesis
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Define xerophyte
A plant that is adapted to living in dry conditions
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Define active loading
Movement of sucrose into sieve tubes using active transport, carried out by the PM's of companion cells
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Define source
In plants, an area where sucrose is produced e.g. photosynthetic leaf
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Define sink
In plants, an area where sucrose is used e.g. fruit
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Define callose
A complex carbohydrate produced by plants to seal wounds in the phloem
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Define mass flow
The movement of a bulk liquid
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Define cohesion
The attractive force that holds water molecules together by hydrogen bonding
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Define adhesion
A force that attracts water molecules to a surface by hydrogen bonding
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Define pits
A part of a xylem element wall in which there is no lignin
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Define stele
The central area of a root, containing xylem and phloem tissues
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Define lignin
A strong waterproof substance found in the walls of xylem vessels
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Define endodermis
Outer layer of the stele in a plant root
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Define suberin
A waterproof substance that makes up the walls of cells in the endodermis
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Define Casparian *****
A band of suberin in the walls of cells making up the endodermis of plant roots, preventing water being passed on to cells
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Define apoplast pathway
A route taken by water as it moves across a plant tissue by passing through cell walls and spaces between the vells
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Define symplast pathway
A route taken by water as it moves across a plant tissue by passing through cells
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Define plasmodesmata
A direct connection between the cytoplasm of one cell and an adjacent cell, made of PM and ER directly linking the 2
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Define cortex
Area of a stem or root between the surface layers and the centre; made of parenchyma tissue
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Define carbominohaemoglobin
A compound formed when carbon dioxide combines with oxygen
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Define haemolglobinic acid
Compound formed when hydrogen ions combine with hameologlobin
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Define dissociation curve
A graph showing the percentage saturation of a blood pigment e.g. haemolglobin at different concentrations of oxygen
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Define oxyhaemoglobin
Compound formed when oxygen combines with haemoglobin
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Define subclavian vein
A large vein that carries blood back from the arms to the heart into which lymph flows from the lymphatics
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Define oedema
A build up of tissue fluid in the tissues caused by poor drainage from the lymphatics
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Define lymphatics
A blind-ending vessel containing valves which transports tissue fluid back to the blood stream
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Define tissue fluid
A fluid that fills spaces between the cells within the body tissues; formed from blood plasma
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Define ECG
Electrocardiogram; a recording of the hearts electrical activity
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Define cardiac cycle
A series of events that take place in the heart during 1 heartbeat
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Define surfactant
A substance secreted by some of the cells in the alveoli, which reduces surface tension preventing alveoli from sticking shut
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Define pleural membrane
One of 1 membranes that surrounds the lungs, making them airtight
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Define pleural fluid
The viscous fluid between 2 pleural membranes that surround the lungs
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Define karyotype
The picture taken of the chromosomes of an individual during mitosis, pictures are then arranged in their pairs from largest to smallest
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Define allele
1 of 2 or more varieties of a gene
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Define totipotent
When a stem cell is able to divide to form any of the different types of specialised cell in a body
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Define spindle
A structure made up of microtubules that is formed during cell division and manoeuvres the chromosomes into position
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Define zygote
A diploid cell produced by the fusion of 2 gametes
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Define centromere
A place where 2 chromatids are held together, and where the microtubules of the spindle attach during cell division
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Define pressure potential
The pressure exerted by a cell pushing outwards on a cell wall
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Define fluid mosaic model
Model of plasma membrane: fluid as the membrane is always moving e.g. transporter proteins and mosaic due to how it looks from above
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define resolution


The ability to distinguish between 2 objects very close together

Card 3


Define cell signalling


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Define diffusion


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Define facillitated diffusion


Preview of the front of card 5
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