AS BIOLOGY AQA EMPA REVISION

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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 16-03-14 19:30
Accuracy
Measurements close to the true value. (No error)
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Anomalous Data
Measurements that fall outside the expected range of measured values. A large number of readings allows anomalous data to be identified with more certainty.
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Causal Link
A change in one variable that results in a change in another variable.
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Chance
Essentially the same as luck. Results of any investigation could have a genuine scientific explanation, or be down to chance.
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Confounding variable
A variable, in addition to the independent variable, that may affect the outcome of the investigation. Must be kept constant for fair test. Sometimes referred to as control variables.
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Control experiment
An experiment set up to eliminate certain possibilities. Allows comparison between the independent variable and nothing being changed.
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Control group
People treated the same way as those in the experimental group, except for the factor being investigated. Allows scientists to make comparison. The data collected is valid because differences are due to independent variable. Placebo.
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Correlation
Possible relationship between two variables. Correlation doesn't mean causation.
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Dependent variable
The variable that is measured for each change in the independent variable.
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Double-blind trial
Neither scientists nor patients know which treatment the patient is receiving until after the trial. Avoids bias, increases validity of trial.
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Errors
Cause readings to be different from the true value.
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Evidence
Data that is used to support a hypothesis.
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"Fair test"
Only the independent has been allowed to affect the dependent variable. All other variables are controlled.
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Hypothesis
A possible explanation of a problem that can be tested experimentally.
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Independent Variable
The variable that is changed. Left hand side column of table, x axis of graph.
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Placebo
A dummy pill given to members of a control group. It removes bias. Identical to pill in experimental group, without drug being tested. Data is valid.
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Precision
Smallest scale on a measuring instrument. Precise values have very little spread about the mean value.
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Probability
The likelihood of an event occuring.
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Random errors
Occur in an unpredictable way. Causes by human error, faulty technique in taking measurements or by faulty equipment.
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Raw data
Data collected during experiment. May be processed to calculate percentages and standard deviations.
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Reliability
Results can be repeated to get the same result (by other scientists for example).
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Systematic errors
Cause readings to be spread about some value other than the true value... Shifted in one direction from the true value. May occur by using wrongly calibrated instrument.
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True value
Accurate value which would be found is quantity could be measured without any errors.
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Validity
Data is valid if the meaurements are affected by a single variable only (no confounding variables). Reliable data to an appropriate level of accuracy.
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Zero errors
Instruments having an incorrect zero.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Measurements that fall outside the expected range of measured values. A large number of readings allows anomalous data to be identified with more certainty.

Back

Anomalous Data

Card 3

Front

A change in one variable that results in a change in another variable.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Essentially the same as luck. Results of any investigation could have a genuine scientific explanation, or be down to chance.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A variable, in addition to the independent variable, that may affect the outcome of the investigation. Must be kept constant for fair test. Sometimes referred to as control variables.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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