AS2 Definitions

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Empirical formula
A formula which shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.
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Molecular Formula
A formula which shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
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Molar gas volume
The volume of one mole of gas under specified conditions of temperature and pressure e.g. 24dm³ at 20°C and one atmosphere pressure.
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Homologous series
Compounds which have the same general formula, similar chemical properties and successive members differ by CH2.
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Functional group
The part of a structure which determines the characteristic reactions of the compound.
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Structural isomers
Molecules which have the same molecular formula but a different structural formula.
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Stereoisomers (geometric)
Have the same structural formula but different 3D spatial arrangements.
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Saturated hydrocarbon
Contains no C = C or C triple bond C.
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Hydrocarbon
Contains hydrogen and carbon only.
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Thermal cracking
Breaking down large molecules into smaller molecules using heat.
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Substitution
Replacing one atom or group with a different atom or group.
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Homolytic fission
Bond breaking in which one of the shared electrons goes to each atom.
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Free radical
A particle with with an unpaired electron.
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Catalyst
A substance which alters the speed of a chemical reaction but does not get used up.
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Unsaturated hydrocarbon
Contains at least one C = C bond or C triple bond C.
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Sigma bond
A covalent bond formed by the linear overlap of atomic orbitals resulting in free rotation along the bond axis.
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Pi bond
A covalent bond formed by the sideways overlap of p orbitals resulting in it being restricted along the bond axis.
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Bond length
The distance between the nuclei of two covalently bonded atoms.
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Hydrogenation
Addition of a hydrogen molecule across a C=C.
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Electrophile
An ion or molecule that attacks regions of high electron density.
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Heterolytic fission
Bond breaking in which the shared electrons go to one atom.
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Polymerisation
Joining together of small molecules (monomers) to form a large molecule.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A formula which shows the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.

Back

Molecular Formula

Card 3

Front

The volume of one mole of gas under specified conditions of temperature and pressure e.g. 24dm³ at 20°C and one atmosphere pressure.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Compounds which have the same general formula, similar chemical properties and successive members differ by CH2.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The part of a structure which determines the characteristic reactions of the compound.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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