AS Media Studies Key terms

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Anchorage
– it fixes meaning. In print media texts, anchorage consists of lexical codes which firmly establish the connection between an image and the reason it has been used. They might appear as slogans, copy, headlines or captions accompanying an image. Thi
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Arbitray/symbolic sign
does not have an obvious connection with what it represents, but whose meaning is agreed on by users of a particular code. Saussure referred to these types of sign as symbolic. Many road signs
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Code
A system used to create meaning. Most forms of meaning production have specific codes, frameworks which are used to encode meaning. It is vital that codes are shared and their meanings agreed upon across a culture, or they cannot be decoded
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Connottion
The meaning evoked by a sign – what it makes us think. It can be thought of as the end result of reading a sign, the mental image we have of its meaning
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Decoding
When audiences interpret a text, in order to make meaning
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Denotation
Can be understood as the literal meaning of a component of a code
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Encoding
The process of creating intended meanings within a text
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Iconic sign
Looks like what it is representing. e.g symbols like danger of death - they show someone dying/being struck by lightening
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Indexical sign
relationship between the signifier and signified which could be described as causal or otherwise linked. The relationship between the two things is so widely recognised by users of the signification system that the indexical sign easily stands for th
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Myth
s closely associated with Roland Barthes. A myth in critical theory is the way in which certain signs contribute to ideologies in our society. Myth is particularly helpful to print advertisers in promoting values that are consumerist and materialist
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Sign
e sum of the signifier plus signified. Most print media texts can be referred to as complex signs, since they often comprise many individual elements and codes which need to be decoded in order to understand fully what they represent
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Signified
The meaning that is intended
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Signifier
works in tandem with signified,a dn toegtehr these combine into a sign. they work together because the association happens so fast when we read a text
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Arbitrary relationship
relationship between signifier and signified which is not obvious (e.g. the word ‘cat’ in the Roman alphabet and our mental image of the animal)
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Critical theory
approach to the study of culture which considers how various forces are at work in its production
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Linguistics
the study of structural aspects of language, with many subspecialisms
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Post structuralism
later work on structuralism which both extends its ideas and critiques its approach
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Second order of signification
layered and more subtle interpretation of a complex sign
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Semiology
Saussure’s term for the study of signs, which he regarded as a science
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Structuralism
a way of analysing culture which prioritises its form/ structure over function according to codified systems
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Third order of signification
Relationship between 1st and 2nd orders of signif and myths and ideology
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Triadic model
Common term used for Peirces description of how we read signs
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Ferdinand de saussure
(1857–1913), Swiss structural linguist often credited along with Peirce with the founding of semiotic theory
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Charles Peirce
contributed to the field of semiotic theory from his broad background as a mathematician, philosopher and communication theorist.
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The technical codes and features used in print media texts
Dress code, colour code, framing,non verbal codes, lexical codes, props, proxemics, graphical elements
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Advertorial
extended print advertisment which may resemble editorial in its use of codes but clearly labelled advertisement under UK media law
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AIDA
Attemtion, interest, desire, action
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body text
majority of article text, smallest size
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brand recognition
when an audience become familiar with a brand
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brand value
the image a company intends to convey of its product or service
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Byline
journalist’s credit on an article, usually at the start
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Camera proxemics
the distance/ relationship between subject and audience
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Caption
Written anchorage accompanying an image and fixing its meaning
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Centre of visual interest
photograph or graphic which INTENTIONALLY dominates the page
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Composite image
presentation of images using a montage effect
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Copy
the term used for body text in a newspaper, print advertisement or magazine
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coverline
feature and secondary articles promoted on the front of a magazine
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Cropping
removal of sections of the image to emphasise its subject or remove clutter or unwanted signs
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Crosshead
small amount of text enlarged as a hook for visual contrast with body text
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Decor
selection of appearance of interior locations
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Direct/indirect address
the way in which a text addresses its audience
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Drop cap
enlarged first letter – an attention-grabbing aesthetic device
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Entry point
a visually appealing and prominent spread in a magazine
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flag/masthead
the name of a newspaper or magazine
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Folio
titling at the top of a section of a newspaper identifying the content in that section
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Framing
careful selection of what will appear in a final shot
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Graphical elemnts
any graphics generated not consisting of pure typography or photography
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Headline
large type promoting article content, especially on the front of a newspaper
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

does not have an obvious connection with what it represents, but whose meaning is agreed on by users of a particular code. Saussure referred to these types of sign as symbolic. Many road signs

Back

Arbitray/symbolic sign

Card 3

Front

A system used to create meaning. Most forms of meaning production have specific codes, frameworks which are used to encode meaning. It is vital that codes are shared and their meanings agreed upon across a culture, or they cannot be decoded

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The meaning evoked by a sign – what it makes us think. It can be thought of as the end result of reading a sign, the mental image we have of its meaning

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When audiences interpret a text, in order to make meaning

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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