# Materials Keyword Definitions

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Hardness
The ability to withstand scratching or indentation - indication of wear resistance of a material.
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Toughness
The ability of a material to withstand sudden loading. (E.g. glass is hard, but if you hit it with a hammer it would smash). Measured in MN/m^2.
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Elasticity
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Plasticity
The readiness to deform to a stretched state when a load is applied. Deformation is permanent. (E.g. think what would happen if you pressed your finger into a plastic bag).
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Density
The mass per unit volume. Measured in kg/m^3.
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Specific heat capacity
The quantity of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of material by 1° measured in J/kg °C.
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Coefficient of Linear (thermal) Expansion
The tendency of matter to change in volume in response to change in temperature. Measured in m/K (°)
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Resistivity
How strongly a material opposes the flow of electrical current. Measured in Ω∙m (ohm metre)
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Conductivity
How well a material allows the flow of electrical current. A high conductivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement of charge. Measured in Siemens per metre (S/m).
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Ductility
The ability to be drawn into threads or wires.
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Brittleness
The tendency to break easily or suddenly with little or no extension, e.g. glass.
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Malleability
The ability to plastically deform and shape a material by the application of pressure e.g. forging.
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Tensile strength
The resistance of a material to breaking under tension. (E.g. in a building the roof will be made of steel because it has a high tensile strength)
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Compressive strength
The resistance of a material to breaking under compression. (E.g. in a building the walls will be made of concrete because they have a high compressive strength).
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Rigid
Unable to bend or be forced out of shape; not flexible.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

The ability of a material to withstand sudden loading. (E.g. glass is hard, but if you hit it with a hammer it would smash). Measured in MN/m^2.

Toughness

### Card 4

#### Front

The readiness to deform to a stretched state when a load is applied. Deformation is permanent. (E.g. think what would happen if you pressed your finger into a plastic bag).

### Card 5

#### Front

The mass per unit volume. Measured in kg/m^3.