AS Dance Revision

  • Created by: e5layb
  • Created on: 04-05-17 11:51
What are external and environmental factors of safe practise?
No obstruction, sprung floors, height of the room, temperature and ventilation.
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How can you prevent injury?
Properly fitting clothing, proper warm up and cool down and correct technique.
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How do you treat an injury?
PRICED; Protection, Rest (repair), Ice (inflammation), Compression (support), Elevation (swelling) and Dyagnosis.
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What does protein do to the muscles?
Build and repair muscles.
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What do complex carbohydrates do?
Release energy efficiently however they do take longer to break down.
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What does water do?
Hydrates the body and prevents dehydration which could lead to cramps.
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What do fruit and veg do?
Help bone repair.
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How can you prevent exhaustion?
Small breaks during rehearsal- food and fluid to be consumed.
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Why do we warm up?
Wake up muscles, muscles become more easily stretched and warms up body.
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How can you warm up?
Dynamic streching, jogging for a few minutes at a slow rate and dance like movement such as travelling/ bouncing gently.
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What happens to the body when you warm up?
Increase in heart rate, increases blood flow to muscles and speeds up rate of transmission of nerve impulses (better coordination)
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Why do we cool down?
Less likely to suffer cramps, prevents pooling of blood, which can cause soreness, fainting and dizziness.
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How can you cool down?
Static stretching (of muscles used during rehearsal), and reduce intensity of aerobic exericse e.g. from jogging to walking.
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What happens to the body when you cool down?
Helps relax muscles and increases flexibility, spreads out/ removes lactic acid (avoid cramping) and return of blood to the heart.
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How can you communicate a dance idea?
Projection, Characterisation and Focus.
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What are your technical/physical skills?
ABC; Alignment, Balance and Coordination. SSF; Strength, Stamina and Flexibility.
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Which parts of the body does each technical/ physical skill relate to?
Alignment- Skeleton bones, Balance & Coordination- Nervous system and Brain, Strength- Muscles, Stamina-Cardiorespiratory, Flexibility- Joints.
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What are some examples of technical skills?
Turnout, Parallel, Plie, Preparation for jumps and Correct alignment.
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What are your performance/ expressive skills?
Focus, Projection, Musicality, Communication, Style, Characterisation, Facial expression, Phrasing, Timing and Emphasis.
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What skills are needed when performing with others?
Awareness, Sensitivity, Contact, Use of space, Timing and Focus
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What is meant by alignment?
Placing the body ( mainly bones and muscles) in such a way that they are physiologically correct.
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What is meant by posture?
The carriage of the body as a whole?
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Why are alignment and posture important?
Improves overall balance and body control, allows freedom of movement, prevents injury and makes movement aesthetically pleasing.
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Define strength.
Extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance.
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Why is strength important for a dancer?
Enables performer to carry out movements such as lifts, leaps and balances safely and with ease.
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How can you improve your strength?
Planks and sit ups for core strength and push ups and curl ups with weights for arm strength (upper body strength)
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Define muscular endurance.
Muscles being able to sustain repeated contractions against resistance for extended period of time.
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Why is muscular endurance important for a dancer?
Can hold positions for a longer period of time.
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How can you improve your muscular endurance?
Calf raises- calf muscles and tricep dips.
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Define stamina.
Energy and strength to continue physical activity (dance) over a long period.
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Why is stamina important for a dancer?
Stamina is needed to prolong capability. Enables dancers to last longer during dance (tiring activity)
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How can you improve your stamina?
Aerobics, running and biking.
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Define flexibility.
Angle of movement around the joint.
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Why is flexibility important for a dancer?
Dancer must be able to easily move their body without harming themself.
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How can you improve your flexibility?
Butterfly stretches.
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Define agility.
Ability to move quickly and easily with grace and fluidity.
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Why is agility important for a dancer?
Helps dancer maintain good body control without losing time in the transition.
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How can you improve your agility?
Turning sprints and t-travels.
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What is progressive overload?
Putting our bodies under additional stress in order to progress and improve fitness. This causes long-term adaptations, enabling our bodies to work more efficiently to cope with a higher level of performance.
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How can you achieve progressive overload?
FITT; Frequency- increasing the number of times you train per week, Intensity- Increasing the difficulty of the exercise you do, Time- Increasing the length of time that you are training for ecah session, Type- Changing the method of training.
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What is resistance training?
Exercises that provide resistance to the muscles. Improves muscular endurance and strength.
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What are some examples of resistance training?
Resistance band, tricep curls, push ups and squats.
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What is continuous training?
Exercising for a sustained period of time wihtout rest. Improves stamina and agility.
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What are some examples of continuous training?
Running/ Cycling for a long period of time regularly and Circuits between 8- 15 stations, 1 minute at each station increase aerobic fitness.
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What is stretching?
Exercise in which specific muscles are deliberately flexed/ stretched in order to improve the muscle's elasticity.
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What is static stretching?
Stretching a body part to its farthest position and then holding it for 30 seconds.
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What is dynamic stretching?
Controlled swinging of the arms and legs that gently takes them to the limits of their range of motion. Parts of the body are moved with gradually increasing speed, reach or both.
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What is PNF stretching?
A tensed (isometric) muscle is held for a set time, then the partner assists a further 'stretch' in a passive, static form.
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What should you include in a training programme?
SPOR; Specificity- training matches needs of sporting activity to improve fitness in the body parts the sport uses, Progression- start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exericse and keep overloading, Overload & Reversibility.
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Define isotonic.
a dynamic movement- resistance during which the muscle changes length ( moving contraction) e.g. leg swings and press ups.
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Define isometric.
static resistance- during which the muscle tone increases but doesnt change in length (still contraction) e.g. the plank.
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What are skeletal muscles?
They are attached to the bones by tendons, controlled by the nervous system, send energy pulses to muscle fibres (voluntary, electrical impulse)
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What are cardiac muscles?
Cardiac muscle cells, unlike most other tissues in the body, rely on an available blood and electrical supply to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products.
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What are slow and fast twitch movements?
Slow twitch- Sustained slow contracting, tension & Fast twitch- Fast impact movements that contract rapidly
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What do antagonist and agonist muscles do?
Create movement; when one (the prime mover) contracts, the other (the antagonist) relaxes. Work together- Antagonist; relax, stretch, smooth. Agonist- Contract e.g. bicep and tricep.
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What is a cartilaginous joint?
Bones that are united by ligaments; small movements and great strength e.g. the spine.
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What is a fibrous joint?
Bones that are joined by tough fibrous sheaths; no movement e.g. the skull
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What is a synovial joint?
A capsule that is carrying a synovial fluid and then lubricates the joint- cartiliage that covers the bone e.g. hip, fingers, toes, knees and ankles.
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What are the six joint movements?
1. Flexion (bend) 2. Extension (straighten) 3.Abduct (take away from centre) 4.Adduct (bring back to centre) 5. Rotate (around axis) 6. Circumduction (everything)
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What are the three planes?
Frontal- movement is front or back, Horizontal- divided top half and bottom half, Sagittal- divides you left or right.
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What are the four joint movement ranges?
Nonaxial- linear only (in a line), Uniaxial- one way (on a simple plane), Biaxial- movement over 2 planes, Triaxial- movement pver all 3 planes e.g. ball and socket joint, ankle.
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What can the hip/pelvis do?
It can do all movements as it is surrounded by ligaments. It is the strongest joint with strong elasticity e.g. ball and socket joint and synovial.
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What can the knee do?
It can only go forwards or backwards and is prone to injury due to the weight baring knee cap. It absorbs shock and is protected by the patella. E.g. hinge and flexion & extension. Soft knees prevent injury.
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What can the ankle do?
Supports landing and also provides release for jumps. Some rotation not when you are bearing weight. It is a stable joint. E.g. Flexion and extension.
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What does stretching do?
Lengthens muscle along the direction of the fibres. The golgi tendon reflex stops you from doing certain movements and reacts to pressure.
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What does the stretch reflex do?
Blocks over stretching by muscular contractions and prevents injury.
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What can a long sustained stretch do?
Over ride the stretch reflex.
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What can boucing movements/stretches do?
Confuse the brain which is why it is unsafe and better to contract one muscle at a time.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How can you prevent injury?


Properly fitting clothing, proper warm up and cool down and correct technique.

Card 3


How do you treat an injury?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does protein do to the muscles?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What do complex carbohydrates do?


Preview of the front of card 5
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