AS Chemistry - Alcohols

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Define a functional group
Atom or group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactivity of the compound
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Define volatility
The ease at which a liquid turns into a gas
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Define oxidation
Addition of oxygen/ loss of hydrogen
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Define oxidation agent
Causes another species to be oxidised.
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Define reflux
The continuous boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture
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What is needed for the hydration of ethene?
Steam, H3PO4, high temp and pressure
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What is needed for the fermentation of glucose?
Glucose, C6H12O6,,37oC / yeast / anaerobic
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Outline the advantages of hydration of ethene
Continuous process (product is removed continuously). Overall 95% ethanol (reactants recycled continuously). 100% atom economy (no waste by-product).
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Outline the disadvantages of hydration of ethene
Expensive feedstock (cracking of crude oil to produce ethene). High energy demand (high temperatures and pressures). Non-renewable source (ethene from cracking of hydrocarbons from crude oil) Not sustainable (non renewable energy source).
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Outline the advantages of fermentation of glucose
Cheap materials (glucose from sugar cane). Low energy demand (low temperature 37oC and atmospheric pressure). Renewable source (sugar cane). Sustainable (renewable energy source).
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Outline the disadvantages of fermentation of glucose
Slow batch process (left to completion). Only up to 14% ethanol (aq solution dilute as high alcohol concentrations will denature enzyme). Low atom economy (CO2 waste by-product)
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Uses of ethanol?
Alcoholic drinks and solvent in the form of methylated spirits
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Uses of methanol?
Petrol additive (to improve combustion). Feedstock in the production of organic chemicals
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Are alcohols soluble?
Alcohols dissolve in water (aq) because the polar O-H group of the alcohol is able to form hydrogen bonds with the polar O-H bonds in water molecules.
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What happens to solubility as chain length increases?
Solubility decreases as the chain length increases because there is more hydrocarbon (which is non-polar) present which is not water soluble (hydrophobic) and cannot form hydrogen bonds with the water molecules.
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What are the products in the combustion of alcohols?
H2O and CO2
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Outline the full oxidation of a primary alcohol
Alcohol + oxidising agent (distill) → aldehyde + oxidising agent (reflux) → carboxylic acid + H20
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What observations can be seen during the oxidation of an alcohol?
orange→ green
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Outline the full oxidation of a secondary alcohol
alcohol (warm) → ketone
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Outline the full oxidation of a tertiary alcohol
No reaction
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All alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form...?
Esters
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define volatility

Back

The ease at which a liquid turns into a gas

Card 3

Front

Define oxidation

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define oxidation agent

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define reflux

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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