AS Chemistry

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Define hydrolysis
The breaking of a bond by its reaction with water
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What is a nucleophile?
A species attracted to an electron deficient centre where is donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.
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Define unsaturated
Containing at least one carbon to carbon double bond.
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What does a curly arrow show?
Indicating the movement of an electron pair, showing either the breaking or formation of a covalent bond
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What is heterolytic fission?
The breaking of a covalent bond where the shared pair electrons are not split equally, forming a cation and an anion.
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Atomy economy =
= Molecular mass desired product / Molecular mass sum of products x100
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Describe an experiment which could be used to compare the rates of hydrolysis of 1-iodobutane, 1-bromobutane and 1-chlorobutane.
In a water bath at 40oC  to equal amounts of each halogenoalkane  add equal amounts of ethanolic silver nitrate solution  measure the time (t) taken for a precipitate to form  rate of reaction is inversely proportional to t. Silver iodide forms
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Include relevant equations and ionic equations in your answer and any observations in the hydrolosis of haloalkanes
Ag+ (aq) + I- (aq) → AgI(s) white precipitate forms first, Ag+ (aq) + Br- (aq) → AgBr(s) cream precipitate, Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) → AgCl(s) white precipitate forms last. Silver iodide forms first, the C-I bond is longest, weakest and easiest to break
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Uses of halogen compounds
Polymers, CFC's
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What is the equilibrium in the atmosphere?
O3 ⇌ O2 + ●O, O2 → 2 ●O, O2 + ●O → O3
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Describe the mechanism of chlorine radicals in the atmosphere
Initiation: C2F2Cl2 → ●C2F2Cl + ●Cl (chlorine radical produced. UV light causes homolytic fission), Propagation: ●Cl + O3 → ●ClO + O2, ●ClO + ●O → ●Cl + O2, overall O3 + ●O → 2O2
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Card 2

Front

What is a nucleophile?

Back

A species attracted to an electron deficient centre where is donates a pair of electrons to form a new covalent bond.

Card 3

Front

Define unsaturated

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does a curly arrow show?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is heterolytic fission?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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