AS Biology Topic 3.1 + 3.2

  • Created by: TobyHill5
  • Created on: 06-05-18 20:31
The need for an exchange system is affected by size, SA/V ratio and ________
level of metabolic activity
1 of 60
tiny folds of the lung epithelium to increase surface area
2 of 60
Which is not an adaptation in order to reduce diffusion distance
wide capillary so that as many RBCs can squeeze through as possible
3 of 60
The diaphragm contracts, moves down and pushes organs down
4 of 60
when volume INCREASES, pressure ________
5 of 60
protein fibres that can deform and then recoil to their original size
elastin fibres
6 of 60
tidal volume
the volume of air inhaled or exhaled in one breath, measured at rest
7 of 60
Which is NOT a precaution you should take before using a spirometer
chamber is not airtight
8 of 60
slender branches of tissue that make up the gill
gill filaments
9 of 60
folds of the filament to increase surface area
10 of 60
the large surface area in a fish's exchange surface comes from.....
the highly folded gill filaments (gill lamellae)
11 of 60
insects have an _____ circulatory system
12 of 60
gaseous exchange in insects takes place between...
13 of 60
the tracheal fluid is withdrawn when insects need ____ air
14 of 60
the need for a transport DOES NOT depend on...
heart muscle size
15 of 60
heart ---> body tissues ----> heart
systemic circulation
16 of 60
arteries have a THICK layer of....
smooth muscle
17 of 60
hydrostatic pressure
the pressure that a fluid exerts when pushing exerts the sides of a vessel or container
18 of 60
the pressure created by the osmotic effects of the solute
oncotic pressure
19 of 60
lymph fluid flows back into the blood via the _________
subclavian vein
20 of 60
the hydrostatic pressure of blood pushes fluid ____ the tissues
21 of 60
hydrostatic pressure of the tissue fluid pushes fluid into the ________
22 of 60
oncotic pressure of the _____ pulls water back into the blood
23 of 60
oncotic pressure of the tissue fluid pulls water ____ the tissue fluid
24 of 60
blood goes vena cava ---->
right atrium
25 of 60
right ventricle ----->
pulmonary artery
26 of 60
pulmonary vein --->
left atrium
27 of 60
left ventricle ----->
28 of 60
a relaxation stage where elastic recoil causes the chambers to increase volume + decrease pressure so blood flows in
29 of 60
the atria contract, reduces volume, increases pressure, pushes blood out of atria
atrial systole
30 of 60
ventricles contract, decrease volume, increase pressure, contraction starts at apex so blood pushed up into arteries
ventricular systole
31 of 60
valves are kept closed when blood fills the..........
valve pockets
32 of 60
__________ prevent AV valves turning inside out
tendinous cords
33 of 60
blood only moves from ventricles ---> arteries when the pressure is greater in the _______
34 of 60
slow heart rate
35 of 60
fast heart rate
36 of 60
an extra beat or early beat of the ventricles
ectopic heartbeat
37 of 60
uncoordinated contraction of the atria + ventricles
38 of 60
muscle that can initiate its own contraction
39 of 60
the heart's pacemaker, a patch of tissue that sends out waves of electrical impulses at regular intervals in order to initiate contractions
40 of 60
Purkyne tissue
consists of specially adapted muscle fibres that conduct the wave of excitation from the AVN down the septum to the ventricles
41 of 60
why does the AVN delay the electrical impulses
to give enough time for the atria to finish contracting
42 of 60
the first small peak on an ECG is .......
atrial systole
43 of 60
the graph of oxygen tension vs % saturation is........
S shaped
44 of 60
partial pressure
45 of 60
Why does oxygen not associate with haemoglobin as readily in low oxygen tension
the haem groups are hidden in the centre of the molecule
46 of 60
once one oxygen molecule associates with the haem group, a _____________ occurs
conformational change
47 of 60
fetal haemoglobin has a ______ affinity for oxygen
48 of 60
why does fetal haemoglobin need a higher affinity for oxygen
it needs to associate with oxygen in areas where oxygen tension is low enough for mother's haemoglobin to dissociate
49 of 60
the enzyme that catalyses the combination of carbon dioxide and water
carbonic anhydrase
50 of 60
chloride shift
the movement of chloride ions into the RBCs to balance the charge as hydrogencarbonate ions leave the cell
51 of 60
bohr effect
the effect that extra carbon dioxide has on the haemoglobin, explaining the release of more oxygen
52 of 60
5% haemoglobin is in.......
53 of 60
10% haemoglobin in.......
54 of 60
85% haemoglobin in.....
hydrogencarbonate ion
55 of 60
carbon dioxide diffuses into the RBC's, combines with water and forms...
carbonic acid
56 of 60
carbonic acid quickly dissociates to form....
hydrogen carbonate ions + hydrogen ions
57 of 60
when hydrogencarbonate ions move out of the RBC, the charge is maintained in the RBC by......
chloride shift
58 of 60
how are H+ ions removed from the RBC?
they associate with haemoglobin to form haemoglobinic acid
59 of 60
More CO2 means more H+ ions which means _____ oxygen released
60 of 60

Other cards in this set

Card 2


tiny folds of the lung epithelium to increase surface area



Card 3


Which is not an adaptation in order to reduce diffusion distance


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


The diaphragm contracts, moves down and pushes organs down


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


when volume INCREASES, pressure ________


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Exchange Surfaces + Breathing resources »