arenes-carboxylic acids and esters

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what is the shape and bond angle around each carbon atom in a benzene ring?
trigonal planar 120 degrees
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What are the conditions for nitration of the benzene ring?
concentrated sulphuric acid catalyst at 50 degrees with concentrated nitric acid
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why do electrophillic substitution reactions occur in benzene?
due to the de-localised ring of electrons
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What is the function of the halogen carrier?
It is a catalyst. it generates a Br+ which is a more power electrophille than Br2
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What are some uses of phenols?
in paints, pharmaceuticals, found in antiseptics and found in surfactants and detergents
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what are the conditions for reducing carbonyl compounds to alcohols?
a reducing agent such a NaBH4 (sodium borohydride), heat and water often used as a solvent.
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How do you test for the presence of a carbonyl group?
using the reagent 2,4 DNP in a mixture of methanol and sulfuric acid (also known as bradys solution). when this is added to a carbonyl, an orange precipitate is formed
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What is the test to distinguish between an aldehyde or a ketone?
Tollens reagent ( this is NaOH added to silver nitrate and ammonia). when tollens is added to an aldehyde a silver mirror is formed. when tollens is added to a ketone, no reaction happens
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What happens to the solubility in water of carboxylic acids as more carbons are added and why?
as the amount of carbons increase the molecule becomes less soluble as a result of the longer non-polar hydrocarbon chain that does not interact with water.
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what two ways can you produce esters?
esterification or acid anhydride added to an alcohol
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what are the conditions for esterification?
reflux and concentrated H2SO4 (sulphuric acid)what
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what are the conditions for acid hydrolysis of esters?
heated under reflux with dilute HCL H2SO4, ester is broken down by water
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what are the conditions of alkaline hydrolysis of esters?
aqueous sodium or potassium hydroxide is refluxed with the ester
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Card 2

Front

What are the conditions for nitration of the benzene ring?

Back

concentrated sulphuric acid catalyst at 50 degrees with concentrated nitric acid

Card 3

Front

why do electrophillic substitution reactions occur in benzene?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of the halogen carrier?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are some uses of phenols?

Back

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