AQA Unit 1 BIOLOGY

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  • Created by: maddie
  • Created on: 20-05-15 22:09
MICROVILLI
Folds in plasma membrane, increase SA, more efficient absorption
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NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
Allows large substances (RNA) to move between nucleus and cytoplasm
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NUCLEOPLASM
jelly substance, contains chromatin and nucleolous
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CHROMATIN
DNA within the nucleoplasm
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NUCLEOLOUS
makes RNA, assembles ribosomes
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ROUGH ER
Ribosomes present on outer surface, provide large SA for synthesis of proteins. provides pathway for transport of materials
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SMOOTH ER
synthesise, transport, store lipids and carbs
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LYSOSOMES
Contains digestive enzymes, breaks down materials ingested by phagocytes. Digests warn organelles. Release enzymes to destroy material
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MITOCHONDRIA
Double membrane, outer controls entry/exit of materials. Inner folds into cristae
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CRISTAE
Provide large SA for attatchment of enzymes involved in respiration. `
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MATRIX
Allows mitochondria to control their own protein production
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GOLGI APPARATUS
Processes, packages new lipids and proteins which are transported elsewhere by vessicles. Makes lysosomes
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RIBOSOMES
Site where proteins are made. Attached to rough ER
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DIFFUSION
the net movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration
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OSMOSIS
The net movement of water from an area of high to low water potential, through a partially permeable membrane
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ACTIVE TRANSPORT
The movement of molecules into/out of a cell from a region of low to high concentration, using ATP and carrier proteins
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PULMONARY VENTILATION (total volume of air moved into lungs during 1 minute)
TIDAL VOLUME (volume of air taken in 1 breath at rest) X VENTILATION RATE(number of breaths in 1 minute)
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FIBROSIS
formation of scar tissue in lungs, thicker, less elastic. Tidal volume is reduced, harder to force out air from lungs
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PULMONARY TB
spread by droplet infection, bacteria divide, WBCs attack, inflamation, enlargement of lymphnode, bacteria destroy tissue causing cavities, scar tissue fprms, tidal volume reduced
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EMPHYSEMA
elastin is permanently stretched, SA of alveoulous is reduced, little gas exchange
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ATHEROMA
Fatty deposit forms in wall of artery, begins as fatty streaks (accumilations of WBCs take up LDLs, remove cholestrol from liver --> tissue) Fatty streaks enlarge to ATHEROMATOUS PLAQUE, builds up in lumen, blood flow reduced
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THROMBOSIS
If an atheroma breaks through endothelium of a blood vessel, it forms a rough surface. Disrupts blood flow, leads to THROMBUS (blood clot) reduce blood supply in the tissues
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ANEURYSM
atheromas lead to thrombus also weaken artery walls. These weakened points swell to form balloon like structures --> aneurysm. Aneuryms frequently burst, leading to haemorrhage
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HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
To resist the high pressure, walls of artery become thicker and harder, restricting the blood flow
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Card 2

Front

NUCLEAR ENVELOPE

Back

Allows large substances (RNA) to move between nucleus and cytoplasm

Card 3

Front

NUCLEOPLASM

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

CHROMATIN

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

NUCLEOLOUS

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