AQA Psychology PSYA2 Psychopathology

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Name the 3 definitions of abnormality.
Deviation from social norms; failure to function adequately; deviation from ideal mental health.
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Outline the deviation from social norms definition.
Standards of acceptable behaviour are set by a social group. Deviation from this acceptable behaviour is 'abnormal'. What is acceptable may change over time.
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Outline limitations of this definition.
Susceptible to abuse. Deviation is hard to identify because it is related to context and degree. Cultural relativism.
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Outline the failure to function adequately definition.
Not being able to cope with the demands of everyday life. Abnormal behaviour interferes with everyday living. Individual judges when behaviour becomes 'abnormal'.
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Outline limitations of this definition.
Who judges? Apparently dysfunctional behaviour may sometimes be adaptive. Cultural relativism.
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Outline the deviation from ideal mental health definition.
Uses the same criteria as for physical illness. 6 categories: self attitudes; self actualisation; integration; autonomy; accurate perception of reality; mastery of environment
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Outline limitations of this definition.
A matter of degree. Mental illnesses do not always have physical causes so are not the same as physical illnesses. Cultural relativism.
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Outline the biological approach.
Bodily systems are used to explain behaviour. Mental disorder explained in terms of malfunctioning biological systems. Mental illness is regarded and treated as a physical illness.
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What physical factors is abnormality caused by?
Genes. Traits inherited which may have previously been adaptive. Neurotransmitters associated with mental disorder. Viral infection in the womb.
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What are the 3 psychological approaches to psychopathology?
Psychodynamic, behavioural, cognitive.
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Outline the psychodynamic approach.
Abnormal behaviour is determined by underlying psychological conflicts of which they are largely unaware.
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What unconscious, psychological factors cause abnormality?
Unresolved conflicts between id, ego and superego which result in ego defences and may be expressed in mental disorder. Early experiences. Behaviour is unconsciously motivated.
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Outline the behavioural approach.
All behaviour is learned. Maladaptive behaviours are learned in the same way.
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What learning causes abnormality?
Classical conditioning - learning because of association. Operant conditioning - learning because of consequences of behaviour. Social learning - rewards. Learning environments reinforce problematic behaviours.
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Outline the cognitive approach.
The mind is like a computer - processes information. Problems arise because of how people think about the world.
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Card 2

Front

Outline the deviation from social norms definition.

Back

Standards of acceptable behaviour are set by a social group. Deviation from this acceptable behaviour is 'abnormal'. What is acceptable may change over time.

Card 3

Front

Outline limitations of this definition.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Outline the failure to function adequately definition.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline limitations of this definition.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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