AQA Psychology classical conditioning

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  • Created by: Taniya
  • Created on: 25-09-12 18:25
What is learning?
Learning is the process of gaining knowledge and/or changing the behavior as the result.
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What is classaical conditioning?
a procedure during which ann animal or person learns to associate a reflex responce with a new stimulas
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what is a classical conditioning schedule?
the steps in the procedure to condition a new responce.
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uncondititoned stimulus (UCS)
the stimulas that produces a reflex response, such as the food for Pavlov's dog.
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unconditioned response (UCR)
the reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus, such as Pavlov's dog's salivation.
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conditioned stimulus (CS)
a new stimulus presented with the UCS, such as the bellin Pavlov's experiment.
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conditioned response (CS)
the response that is learnt; it now occurs when the CS is presented, such as Pavlov's dog's salivation.
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extinction
a conditioned response dies out.
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spontaneous recovery
a conditioned response that has disappeared suddenly reappears again.
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Generalisation
the conditioned response is produced when a stimulus to the original conditioned stimulus is presented.
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Discrimination
(with reference to conditioning) the conditioned responce is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented.
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pavlov aim
The aim of this study was originally to study digestion in dogs, he did not intend to study conditioning.
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pavlov method
He presented food in a bowl to the dog several times, until eventually the dog salivated when the empty bowl was presented. It had been conditioned to salivate to the bowl not just the food.
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Pavlov method continued
Pavlov decided to further his research by ringing a bell at the same time as presenting some food. After a while the dogs salivated in response to the bell.
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Pavlov conclusion
The dogs associated the bell with food so they salivated. Normally a dog would not salivate to a bowl or a bell, but the dogs associated these stimuli with food so they gave that response.
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Pavlov evaluation
The researcher has control over all variables as it is a lab experiment. So it is easy to repeat each time which means that it is reliable. Low ecological validity as the dogs weren't in their natural environment.
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watson and rayner aim
to see if the emotional response of fear could be conditioned in a human being
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watson and rayner method
Albert was 11 months old. He liked a white laboratory rat and had no fear of white furry objects. In the conditioning trails the rat was shown to Albert, as he reached for it a metal bar was hit very hard by a hammer. This was done several times.
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Watson and Rayner Results
After seven times, when the rat was presented again, Albert screamed and tried to get away. He did this even though the bar was no hit by the hammer and there was no loud noise. He also screamed when shown other white furry objects.
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Watson and Rayner Conclusion
Watson and Rayner showed that fear responses can be learnt and even very young can be learnt in the way by classical conditioning.
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Watson and Rayner Evaluation
This study is not very ethical as for what the researchers did to the small child. The results can not be generalized as the study only used one child. However the study fits in with phobia
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

a procedure during which ann animal or person learns to associate a reflex responce with a new stimulas

Back

What is classaical conditioning?

Card 3

Front

the steps in the procedure to condition a new responce.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the stimulas that produces a reflex response, such as the food for Pavlov's dog.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus, such as Pavlov's dog's salivation.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

MrsMacLean

A useful set of flash cards which cover all elements of classical conditioning.  These cards can also be combined with a crossword and quiz-search to create the full package!

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