AQA Biology Unit 3a-Life processes

A quiz to test knowledge of the first topcis in the Biology unit 3 for 2013 examinations.

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  • Created by: Chad
  • Created on: 10-05-13 17:41
Define osmosis
The movement of water from a high to a low concentration across a partially permeable membrane
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Define Active Transport
The movement of particles from an area of low to high concentration (energy is needed for this to happen so is supplied from respiration)
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What happens when you breathe in?
Intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract this increases the thorax volume which decreases the pressure drawing air in
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What happens when you breathe out?
Intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax so thorax volume decreases which increases the pressure so air is forced out
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What is the name given to 'the movement of air in and out of the lungs'
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Give 4 ways in which the alveoli are specialized for to maximize the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide
1.enormous surface area 2.moist lining for dissolving gasses 3.very thin walls to decrease diffusion distance 4.good blood supply
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Why does the small intestine have a high concentration of villi lining it's surface?
Increases surface area so digested food can be absorbed quickly into the blood supply
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Explain how the villi are adapted for their purpose?
large surface area for increased diffusion rate, single layer of surface cells to allow diffusion to be easier and a good blood supply for quick absorption
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digested food is moved into the blood from the villi by which process?
Active Transport
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Why do the root hair cells have several long hair cells sticking out of them?
It increases surface area to increase the amount of water and mineral ions that get absorbed from the soil
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Why do root hair cells need to use active transport instead of diffusion to transfer minerals into the plant from the soil?
The concentration on the inside of the root hair cell is higher than on the outside so by the rules of diffusion the minerals would be traveling the wrong way; active transport allows the minerals to travel across the concentration gradient
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When there is a lower concentration of nutrients in the gut, how does active transport prevent us from starving?
It allows the nutrients to be transferred against the concentration gradient into the blood supply preventing us from starving
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What is the job of the Phloem in plants?
To transport food substances (like glucose) to growing regions (like new shoots)
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What is the job of the Xylem in plants?
To transport water and minerals from the roots to the leaves in the transpiration stream
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Define transpiration
Transpiration is caused by the evaporation and diffusion of water from inside the leaves
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What are the holes on the underside of the leaf called?
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What cells control the size of the stomata?
Guard cells
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What is the purpose of the guard cells?
they change the size of the stomata dependent on the amount of water being drawn in by the roots compared to the amount being lost from the stomata
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In what conditions does diffusion of water vapour out of the leaf work best?
Hot, dry, windy-Increases evaporation
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Define the term Double circulatory system
Two circuits joined together
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Describe how the heart pumps blood around the body(try and use as many keywords as possible)
Blood flows into the two atria from the vena cava and the pulmonary vein, the atria contract pushing the blood into the ventricles. The ventricles then contract forcing the blood into the pulmonary artery and the aorta and out of the heart
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Describe the jobs of the arteries, capillaries and veins.
The arteries carry blood away from the heart, the capillaries are involved in exchange of materials at the tissues and the veins carry blood back to the heart
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Arteries pump blood under pressure? true or fals
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Why do the capillaries have walls that are one cell thick?
They are involved in the exchange of materials so having a small wall decreases the distance that diffusion occurs
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What particular feature make the veins differ from capillaries and arteries?
The valves to keep the blood flowing in the correct direction
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What substance does the red blood cell contain?
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What reaction takes place to allow the RBC to carry the oxygen?
The oxygen reacts with the haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin which can be carried to the tissues where the reverse reaction takes place
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What is the job of the white blood cell?
To defend against disease
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Describe the job of the platelets
They are small fragments of cells that clot a wound and prevent blood pouring out and microbes getting in
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List the things that the plasma carries
RBCs, WBCs, platelets, nutrients(amino acids and glucose), carbon dioxide,urea,hormones,antibodies and antitoxins
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Describe how artificial blood can keep you alive in an emergency
when someone has lost a lot of blood the artificial blood is used to keep the volume topped up to allow the patient enough time to create more blood cells thus keeping them alive.
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What are the purpose of artificial hearts?
To pump blood for a patient whose heart has failed.
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What is the main advantage of an artificial heart?
They do not get rejected by the bodies immune system(due to them being made out of metal or plastic)
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List some disadvantages of an artificial heart could cause bleeding or infection could wear out or the electric motor fail 3.blood doesn't run as smoothly through them so could cause clots and lead to strokes;blood thinning pills taken-bleeding out from cuts or accidents lethal
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Describe the function of a stent
They keep the arteries open to allow blood to flow through easily, this keeps the person's heart beating -and alive
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what is the importance of stents for a patient with coronary heart disease?
To prevent heart attacks
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What is the major disadvantage of a stent?
The stent can irritate the artery it is placed in and cause scar tissue to grow which can cause the artery to narrow again so the patient must take blood clot prevention medication
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Define homeostasis
The maintenance of a constant internal environment
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What are the six main things that the body needs to control?
Body temperature (37) water content, ion content, blood sugar levels, carbon dioxide and urea
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Describe how the body would react to cool you down
Hairs would lie flat on the skin and sweat would be produced from the sweat glands which would evaporate off the skin, the blood vessels would dilate so more blood flows to the surface making heat transfer easier
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What three main roles do the kidneys perform?
removal of urea from the blood, adjustment of ion content in the blood and adjustment of water content in the blood
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How and where is urea produced?
The conversion of amino acids into fats and carbohydrates form the waste product of urea, this is done in the LIVER
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If a salty meal is eaten, what ions will be removed by the kidneys?
excess sodium ions
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What are the three main ways in which water is lost from the body?
1) Urine 2) sweating 3)In the air we breathe out
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What are the three controllable ways the balance of water is kept in the body?
1) Liquids consumed 2)Amount sweated out 3)Amount excreted by the kidneys in urine
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Describe the water control in the body on a cold day
You won't sweat as much so more urine will be produced and it will be pale and dilute
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Describe the water control in the body on a hot day
You sweat a lot and you'll produce less urine which will be dark coloured and concentrated
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What are the job of sports drinks such as isotonics?
They replace lost water, sugar and ions
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What are the factors to judge a statement such as 'Sports drinks rehydrate you better than water'
Whether the report is a scientific study published in a reputable journal, whether it was written by a qualified person (dr or professor) whether the sample size is large enough and if other studies have found the same results
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What is the name of the filtration unit in the kidney?
The nephrons
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Explain how ultrafiltration works
A high pressure is built up, pushes the water, urea, ions and sugar out of the blood into the bowmans capsule. The membranes between the vessels and BCapsule are filters stopping proteins and RBCs from getting removed
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Explain the reabsorption process in the nephron and what is reabsorbed back into the blood
As the liquid flows along the nephron all the useful substances get reabsorbed back into the blood: all the sugar is reabsorbed by active transport, Sufficient ions (by active transport) are reabsorbed excess aren't and sufficient water reabsorbed
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Describe how the nephron releases waste
The remaining substances including urea continue out of the nephron into the ureter and down to the bladder as urine
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What are the effects on a person who has suffered a kidney failure?
Waste substances build up in the blood and the body loses the ability to control the water and ion content in the body which eventually leads to death
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How can we treat kidney failure?
Dialysis treatment or a kidney transplant
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How does dialysis work?
Blood is pumped through dialysis fluid which allows the waster products to be removed (but not proteins as there is a permeable membrane there) once the excess water and ions and waste have been filtered out the blood flows back into the patient
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List the advantages and disadvantages of dialysis treatment
Pros: It keeps the patient alive by filtering blood, It can be used as temporary treatment whilst waiting on a donor list. Cons: It's inconvenient and has to be done three times a week for 3-4 hours, It can also cause clots or infections
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How does the body reject transplants?
The immune system will attack foreign antigens on the donor kidney
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What is done to prevent the rejection of kidney transplants?
A donor with a similar tissue type is chosen (therefore the same antigens) and the patient takes immune system suppression drugs which weaken the immune system to prevent rejection
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What are the two hormones which control blood glucose levels?
Insulin and glucagon
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Explain what would happen when the body's glucose level is too high
Insulin would be secreted by the pancreas which then tells the liver to remove the glucose (where it is turned into glycogen) the insulin is also taken in by the liver and the process reduces the glucose level
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Explain what would happen if the body's glucose level is too low
Glucagon gets secreted by the pancreas telling the liver to release glucose which is then secreted to the blood increasing the glucose levels, the glycagon is then removed by the liver
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What are the causes of type 1 diabetes?
The pancreas produces very little or no insulin
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How can diabetes be controlled?
Avoiding food rich in carbohydrates(sugars) exercise after eating to try and use up excess glucose. Injecting insulin into the body to make the liver remove glucose
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What are the two factors that effect the amount of insulin a diabetic must inject?
There diet and how much exercise they do
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of insulin injections?
Pros:It helps control the bodies glucose levels Cons: not as effective as a working pancreas so they may still have long term health problems
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Define Active Transport


The movement of particles from an area of low to high concentration (energy is needed for this to happen so is supplied from respiration)

Card 3


What happens when you breathe in?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What happens when you breathe out?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the name given to 'the movement of air in and out of the lungs'


Preview of the front of card 5
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Brandan Hayes



A very useful set of flashcards covering the early topics  (including circulation, homeostasis,photosynthesis and transpiration)  in the AQA specification. The answers are written in a clear understandable way which is very helpful.


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