AQA Biology Unit 1 - Lungs and lung disease

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  • Created by: Tiffany
  • Created on: 11-05-14 19:22
Why must the volume of oxygen absorbed and the volume of carbon dioxide released be in large volumes in mammals?
they are relatively large organisms with a large volume of living cells and they maintain a high body temperature so therefore, they have high metabolic and respiratory rates
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Why are lungs in mammals located inside the body?
air is not dense enough to support and protect the delicate structures so they would lose a great deal of water any dry out
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What are the main parts of the gas exchange system?
lungs, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
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What role do the rings of cartilage play in the trachea?
prevents the trachea from collapsing as the air pressure inside falls when breathing in
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What two substances line the tracheal walls?
cilia and goblet cells
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What role do the goblet cells play in the bronchi/tracheal walls?
secrete mucus that traps dirt particles and baceteria from the air breathed in
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What role does the ciliated epithelium play in the bronchi/tracheal walls?
it moves the mucus, laden with dirt and microorganisms, up to the throat, from where it passes down the oesophagus into the stomach
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Why are the bronchiolles made of muscle?
it allows them to constrict so that they can control the flow of air in and out of the alveoli
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Which structures in the lungs are the surface for gas exchange?
alveoli
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What is inspiration?
when the air pressure of the atmosphere is greater than the air pressure inside the lungs, forcing air into the alveoli
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What is expiration?
when the air pressure in the lungs is greater than the air pressure in the atmosphere, forcing air out of the lungs
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Which two muscles bring about the pressure changes in the lungs?
the diaphragm and intercostal muscles
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What is the process of inspiration?
the external intercostal muscles contract while the internal intercostal muscles relax, the ribs are pulled upwards and outwards which increases the volume of the thorax, the diaphragm muscles contract, causing it to flatten
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What is the process of expiration?
the internal intercostal muscles while the external intercostal muscles relax, the ribs move downward and inwards which decreases the volume of the lungs,,the diaphragm muscles relax, causing it to return to its domed position
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During inspiration:
the increased volume of the thorax results in reduction of pressure in the lungs
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During expiration:
the decreased volume of the thorax increases pressure in the lungs
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How do you calculate pulmonary ventilation?
tidal volume x ventilation rate
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What are the essential features of exchange surfaces?
large surface area to volume ratio, very thin, partially permeable, movement of environmental and internal medium
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What is Fick's law?
(surface area x difference in concentration) / length of diffusion path
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How are the alveoli adapted for efficient gas exchange?
many of them, permeable, moist surface, thin lining, good blood supply
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why are lungs in mammals located inside the body?

Back

air is not dense enough to support and protect the delicate structures so they would lose a great deal of water any dry out

Card 3

Front

What are the main parts of the gas exchange system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What role do the rings of cartilage play in the trachea?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What two substances line the tracheal walls?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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