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6. The second messenger model, as applied to the action of adrenaline, is:

  • Adrenaline binds to cAMP, forming the adrenaline-cAMP complex, acting as a second messenger to activate the enzymes responsible for glycogenolysis
  • Adrenaline binds to cell-surface receptors, causing an enzyme on the inside of the cell membrane to activate and convert ATP into cAMP, which then acts as a second messenger, activating enzymes responsible for glycogenolysis
  • Adrenaline reacts with ATP to form cAMP and glycerol, then the cAMP acts as a second messenger, causing the activation of enzymes responsible for glycogenolysis

7. Stem cells can only be obtained from embryos. True or false?

  • 11.5
  • False
  • True

8. Calcium ions bind to [1] on [2] molecules, freeing binding sites for [3] on [4] filaments

  • 1: Actin, 2: Tropomyosin, 3: Myosin heads, 4: Troponin
  • 1: Troponin, 2: Tropomyosin, 3: Myosin heads, 4: Actin
  • 1: Tropomyosin, 2: Myosin heads, 3: Actin, 4: Troponin

9. The channels responsible for inducing a generator potential in the pacinian corpuscle are known as what?

  • Sodium-potassium pumps
  • Stretch-mediated sodium ion channels
  • Voltage-gated sodium ion channels

10. Normal blood glucose concentration (BGC) is:

  • 90mg per 100cm^3 blood
  • 10mg per 100cm^3 blood
  • 9mg per 100cm^3 blood
  • 100mg per 100cm^3 blood

11. Slow twitch fibres contain:

  • Large stores of myoglobin and glycogen, many mitochondria and a rich blood supply
  • Large stores of phosphocreatine, and high concentrations of enzymes used in anaerobic respiration

12. Depolaristion only occurs in cells part of the nervous system. True or false?

  • False
  • True
  • 42

13. When using stem cells to repair damaged tissues, the patient's own stem cells are often used. Why is this?

  • Using stem cells from another individual is illegal
  • To prevent the rejection of the treatment due to the presence of foreign antigens
  • To prevent rejection of the treatment based on the nocebo effect

14. During vasoconstriction...

  • ...the arterioles feeding the skin capillaries contract, and so do the shunt vessels.
  • ...the arterioles feeding skin capillaries contract using C-muscles and the shunt vessels dilate
  • ...the arterioles feeding the skin capillaries dilate by relaxing C-muscles, and the shunt vessel contracts

15. The chemo- and pressure receptors responsible for keeping the heart rate in check are found where?

  • In the carotid arteries
  • In the brain stem
  • In the aortic arch

16. Splicing removes [1] from [2], turning it into [3]

  • 1: thymine, 2: mRNA, 3: tRNA
  • 1: introns, 2: pre-mRNA, 3: mRNA
  • 1: exons, 2: pre-mRNA, 3: mRNA

17. Acetylcholine causes the opening of which channel in the post-synaptic membrane?

  • Calcium ion channel
  • Sodium ion channel
  • Potassium ion channel

18. If a [1] mutates it may become a [2] which stimulates [3], leading to uncontrolled cell division, or a [4]

  • 1: oncogene, 2: excitatory oncogene, 3: autolysis, 4: tumour
  • 1: proto-oncogene, 2: oncogene, 3: cell division, 4: tumour
  • 1: tumor suppressor gene, 2: oncogene, 3: cell division, 4: tumour

19. The chemical responsible for positive phototropism in plant shoots is ___?

  • Oxaloacetate
  • Indoleacetic Acid
  • Cytochrome b

20. A point mutation occurs. It may be either silent, nonsense or mis-sense. How many of the three will affect the primary structure of the resulting polypeptide?

  • 1
  • 0
  • 2
  • 3