7. A response whose randomness elevates alongside increasingly unfavourable conditions is a ___?
8. During striated muscular contraction:
The sarcomere, I band and H zone become narrower, the A band maintains its width
The sarcomere and H zone become narrower, the A and I bands maintain their
The sarcomere lengthens, the H zone remains the same size, the A and I bands both shorten
9. Splicing removes  from , turning it into 
1: introns, 2: pre-mRNA, 3: mRNA
1: exons, 2: pre-mRNA, 3: mRNA
1: thymine, 2: mRNA, 3: tRNA
10. During vasoconstriction...
...the arterioles feeding skin capillaries contract using C-muscles and the shunt vessels dilate
...the arterioles feeding the skin capillaries dilate by relaxing C-muscles, and the shunt vessel contracts
...the arterioles feeding the skin capillaries contract, and so do the shunt vessels.
11. Which of the following lists mechanisms for thermoregulation utilised by both endo- and ectotherms?
Behavioural adaptation, colour change
Behavioural adaptation, colour change, alteration of metabolic rate
Alteration of metabolic rate, vasoconstriction/-dilation
12. The ability for a cell to differentiate into any other type of cell in an organism is referred to as what?
13. A hormone from question 24 is secreted from the alpha cells of the pancreas. What are its effects?
It increases blood glucose concentration by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.
It decreases blood glucose concentration by stimulating the uptake of glucose by cells, formation of new glycogen, formation of lipid stores and by increasing respiration rate.
It decreases blood glucose concentration by stimulating glycogenolysis and increased respiration rate, in addition to promoting cellular uptake of glucose.
14. Heart rate is controlled by what region of the brain?
15. A deletion or insertion, unless of a multiple of X, will cause Y. What are X and Y?
X is 3, Y is cancer
X is 3, Y is frame shift
X is 2, Y is cancer
16. Summarise the differences between DNA and RNA.
The backbone of DNA is based upon ribose whereas RNA's backbone is based upon deoxyribose, RNA uses uracil in place of adenine.
The backbone of DNA is based upon deoxyribose whereas RNA's backbone is based upon ribose, RNA uses uracil in place of thymine.
The backbone of DNA is based upon ribose whereas RNA's backbone is based upon deoxyribose, RNA uses uracil in place of thymine.
17. The second messenger model, as applied to the action of adrenaline, is:
Adrenaline binds to cell-surface receptors, causing an enzyme on the inside of the cell membrane to activate and convert ATP into cAMP, which then acts as a second messenger, activating enzymes responsible for glycogenolysis
Adrenaline reacts with ATP to form cAMP and glycerol, then the cAMP acts as a second messenger, causing the activation of enzymes responsible for glycogenolysis
Adrenaline binds to cAMP, forming the adrenaline-cAMP complex, acting as a second messenger to activate the enzymes responsible for glycogenolysis
18. The main hormones responsible for the regulation of blood glucose concentration are:
Insulin, adrenaline and oestrogen
Insulin, glucagon and adrenaline
Insulin and glucagon
19. Following depolaristion, what ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
20. Calcium ions bind to  on  molecules, freeing binding sites for  on  filaments