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6. Describe the role of ATP in the sliding filament theory.

  • ATP binds to troponin molecules on the actin, releasing the myosin head
  • ATP binds to myosin head, releasing it from actin, then it is hydrolysed to ADP, 'recocking' the head.
  • ATP binds to the myosin head, altering the myosin tail's angle, pulling the actin along

7. The chemical responsible for positive phototropism in plant shoots is ___?

  • Oxaloacetate
  • Indoleacetic Acid
  • Cytochrome b

8. Stem cells can only be obtained from embryos. True or false?

  • False
  • True
  • 11.5

9. When using stem cells to repair damaged tissues, the patient's own stem cells are often used. Why is this?

  • Using stem cells from another individual is illegal
  • To prevent the rejection of the treatment due to the presence of foreign antigens
  • To prevent rejection of the treatment based on the nocebo effect

10. A point mutation occurs. It may be either silent, nonsense or mis-sense. How many of the three will affect the primary structure of the resulting polypeptide?

  • 1
  • 0
  • 2
  • 3

11. A response whose randomness elevates alongside increasingly unfavourable conditions is a ___?

  • Kinesis
  • Taxis
  • Tropism

12. How does the chemical from question 2 affect tissues in the ROOT?

  • It inhibits elongation
  • It promotes elongation
  • It causes autolysis

13. Calcium ions bind to [1] on [2] molecules, freeing binding sites for [3] on [4] filaments

  • 1: Troponin, 2: Tropomyosin, 3: Myosin heads, 4: Actin
  • 1: Tropomyosin, 2: Myosin heads, 3: Actin, 4: Troponin
  • 1: Actin, 2: Tropomyosin, 3: Myosin heads, 4: Troponin

14. During translation, there are x tRNA molecules paired to the mRNA molecule and being operated on by a ribosome, and as many as y ribosomes operating on the mRNA. xy ~ ?

  • 10,000
  • 100
  • 1,000

15. Heart rate is controlled by what region of the brain?

  • Medulla oblongata
  • Frontal lobe
  • Hippocampus

16. Oestrogen...

  • ...is secreted from the pituitary gland and maintains the uteral lining (if a fertilised egg has attached).
  • ...is secreted from the pituitary gland and inhibits LH and FSH secretion up until a critical threshold, upon which they are in fact stimulated.
  • ...is secreted from maturing follicles and inhibits LH and FSH secretion up until a critical threshold, upon which they are in fact stimulated.
  • ...is secreted from the corpus luteum and maintains the uteral lining (if a fertilised egg has attached).

17. Summarise the differences between DNA and RNA.

  • The backbone of DNA is based upon deoxyribose whereas RNA's backbone is based upon ribose, RNA uses uracil in place of thymine.
  • The backbone of DNA is based upon ribose whereas RNA's backbone is based upon deoxyribose, RNA uses uracil in place of thymine.
  • The backbone of DNA is based upon ribose whereas RNA's backbone is based upon deoxyribose, RNA uses uracil in place of adenine.

18. If a [1] mutates it may become a [2] which stimulates [3], leading to uncontrolled cell division, or a [4]

  • 1: proto-oncogene, 2: oncogene, 3: cell division, 4: tumour
  • 1: tumor suppressor gene, 2: oncogene, 3: cell division, 4: tumour
  • 1: oncogene, 2: excitatory oncogene, 3: autolysis, 4: tumour

19. In myelinated neurons, depolarisation can only occur where?

  • Dendrites
  • Nodes of ranvier
  • Nodes of his

20. What does it mean to suffer from 'Type I' diabetes mellitus?

  • Type I diabetics do not produce sufficient insulin, suspected to be due to an autoimmune response to pancreatic cells and must inject insulin to maintain their BGC.
  • Type I diabetics have cells which are unresponsive to insulin (often due to obesity), and so must manage their carbohydrate intake to maintain their BGC