AQA AS Psychology Stress

From Cardwell Clark

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Name the 2 systems involved in the bodies response to stress?
Sympathomedullary pathway and pituitary adrenal system
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In what situation is each system used?
SAM-short term stress, PAS-chronic stress
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Describe the sympathomedullary pathway process?
Hypothalamus-adrenal medula-adrenaline+noradrenaline
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Describe the pituitary adrenal system process?
Hypothalamus-CRF-pituitary gland-ACTH-adrenal cortex- cortocosteroids
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What are the 3 stages of general adaptation syndrome (GAS)?
Alarm,resistance and exhaustion
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What causes the body to enter the exhaustion stage in GAS?
Chronic/long lasting stressors
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What is the effect of entering the exhaustion stage in GAS?
Prone to stress related illness
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Describe tend and befriend?
Females fight/flight response inhibited, females seek to protect offspring due to greater 'investment' and befriend other females as defence from outside threat
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Describe the effect of tend and befriend?
Females less likely to die of coronary heart attack than males
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Describe one study into improved immune system function?
Sapolsky (1994) found that good exercise, diet and social support can improve immune function. Also immune system recovers after stress resolved
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Name 3 effects of stress on the immune system?
Infections and diseases (last longer), indirect effects (ACTH inhibits immune cell functioning) and eczema (worsened)
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What's the main study concerning the effects of stress on the immune system?
Kiecolt-glasier (1984)
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Describe the procedure of Kiecolt glaser 1984?
75 medical studnets, measured T cells one month before and during exams, given questionnaires about life events and loneliness
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Describe the findings of Kiecolt glaser (1984)?
T cell activity significantly reduced during exams, T cell activity most reduced with high life events and loneliness
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What can we conclude form Kiecolt glaser (1984)?
Exam stress reduces immune system function (increases illness vulnerability), life events and loneliness increase effect of short term stress
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AO2 evaluation points for Kiecolt glaser (1984)?
MLimited sample (medical students)
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Describe another study into short term stressors and the immune system?
Kiecolt glaser and glaser (1981) found that stress causes a decline in the ability of white blood cells to fight anti-gens
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Describe a study into short term stressors and the immune system?
Kang et al (1997) found that stress causes a decrease in natural killer cell activity during examination periods
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Name 3 studies into chronic stressors and the immune system?
Cohen (2005), Gerra et al (2003), Kiecolt-glaser et al (2000)
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Describe Cohen (2005)?
Found that relationship conflicts lasting more than one month led to more risk of developing illness when exposed
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Describe Gerra et al (2003)?
Recent unexpected bereavement caused lower killer cell and t cell activity for up to 6 months
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Describe kiecolt glaser et al (2000)?
Spousal caregivers show poorer infection resistance and low killer cell activity
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What's the trend concerning age and stress levels?
People under 65 were more stressed than people over 65
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What's the trend concerning gender and stress levels?
Women are more stressed than men
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Whats the main way of measuring the impact of life changes?
Social readjustment rating scale (SSRS)
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Who developed the SSRS?
Holmes and Rahe (1967)
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What's the main study into life changes and stress?
Rahe et al (1970)
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Describe the procedure of Rahe et al (1970)?
2500 male american sailors, SSRS recorded, health recorded over 6 month duty tour
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Describe the findings of Rahe et al (1970)?
Positive correlation 0.118 between life change and illness score, weak relationship but meaningful
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What can we conclude from Rahe et al (1970)?
Experiencing life increase the chance of stress related illness (SRI)
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AO2 evaluation points for Rahe et al (1970)?
Can't infer cause and effect, limited sample
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Name 2 other pieces of research into life changes and stress?
Stone et al (1987), Michael and Ben-Zur (2007)
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Describe Stone et al (1987)?
Number of undesirable events in married couples increased 3/4 days before the onset of illness
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Describe Michael and Ben-Zur (2007)?
Studied 130 participants and found that widowed people were more happy before loss of spouse and divorced people were more happy after the loss
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AO2 evaluation points for the life changes approach?
Individual differences (SSRS perception varies), no cause and effect, SSRS doesnt separate positive and negative, self report unreliable, SSRS dated and androcentric
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What are daily hassles?
Minor life evens that arise in the course of a normal day
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What's a way of measuring daily hassles?
Hassles and Uplifts scale (Kanner et al1981)
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Name 4 pieces of research into daily hassles?
Kanner et al (1981), deLongis et al (1982), Ruffin (1993), Bouteyre et al (2007)
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Describe Kanner et al (1981)?
Scores on the hassles scale correlate with levels of depression, anxiety and health problems
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Describe DeLongis et al (1982)?
Hassle scale scores have a greater association with healtth than SSRS scores, uplift scores have no association with health status
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Describe Ruffin (1993)?
Daily hassles produce greater physical and psychological dysfunction than life events
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Describe Bouteyre et al (2007)?
233 french psychology university students, all undergone daily hassles, 41% suffered depressive symptoms
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Why are daily hassles so stressful?
Minor daily stressors accumulate to create persistent frustrations and can cause anxiety and depression, also daily hassles are amplified by chronic stressors
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AO2 evaluation points for research into daily hassles?
No causality, cultural differences (social support)
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What are the 4 sources of workplace stress?
Physical environment, work overload, lack of control and role ambiguity (requirements unclear)
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Whats the main study into workplace stress?
Johansson et al (1978)
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Describe the procedure of Johansson et al (1978)?
Swedish sawmill, 14 finishers (repetitive but skilled), adrenaline and noradrenaline measured in urine, recorded absenteeism and stress related illness, compared with 10 cleaners
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Describe the findings of Johansson et al (1978)?
The finishers secreted more stress hormones on work days than stress days and higher than cleaners, finishers had higher levels of SRI and absenteeism than cleaners
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What can we conclude from Johansson et al (1978)?
Workplace stressors (including repetition) leads to long term physiological arousal causing SRI and absenteeism, stressors need to be reduced (eg introduce variety and control) to reduce SRI and absenteeism
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AO2 evaluation points for Johansson et al (1978)?
Some variables not controlled (eg individual differences), doesnt identify main cause of stress
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Name 2 other pieces of research into workplace stress?
Marmot et al (1991), Van der doef and maes (1998)
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Describe Marmot et al (1991)?
3000 whitehall civil servants, 3 year longitudinal study, measured job control and SRI, found that low job control meant 4 times more likely to die of a heart attack, negative correlation between control and illness
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Describe Van der Doef and Maes (1998)?
High job demands and low control is associated with increased chance of heart disease
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AO2 evaluation points for research into workplace stress?
Extraneous variables(eg personality), high job control can be stressfull (confidence), individual differences (not everyone becomes ill)
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What's the main study into personality and stress?
Friedman and Rosenman (1974)
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Describe the procedure of Friedman and Rosenman (1974)?
3200 californian men classified into personality types, followed up for 8.5 years to assess lifestyle and health outcomes
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Describe the findings of Friedman and Rosenman (1974)?
257 men developed coronary heart disease, 70% of CHD victims were type A, balanced for obesity and smoking
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What can we conclude from Friedman and Rosenman (1974)?
Type A behaviour pattern increases vulnerability to heart disease, behaiour modification programs should reduce risk of heart disease
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AO2 evaluation points for Friedman and Rosenman (1974)?
Other variables could affect heart disease vulnerability, no cause and effect, different findings to other studies
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Name 2 pieces of research into type A behaviour?
Williams et al (2003) and Kirkaldy et al (2002)
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Describe Williams et al (2003)?
Found that certain aspects of type A behaiour were unhealthier than others, hostility and impatience are the most risky
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Describe Kirkaldy et al (2002)?
Studied 300 german managers, external locus of control had greater perceived stress as well as lower job satisfaction and health (mental/physical)
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How can we explain the relationship between type A and heart disease?
Type A people respond more quickly and strongly to stressful situations which places more wear and tear on cardiovascular system
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AO2 evaluation points for type A behaviour?
Lack of consistent research support (low/negative correlations), hostility more important than type A, type A can be dealt with with hardy personality, control+commitment negate negative effects of stress
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Who conceptualised the hardy personality?
Kobasa
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Describe the hardy personality?
Control+Commitment+Challenge reduce negative effects of stress, high hardiness score=less risk of SRI
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What are other factors involved in coping with stress?
Hardiness, social support and regular exercise
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AO2 evaluation points for hardiness and hardy personality?
Limited sample (male white collar workers), 3C's not defined
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What are the 2 broad methods of stress management?
Physiological and psychological
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Name 2 physiological methods of stress management?
Drugs and bioifeedback
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Name 2 different kinds of drugs for stress management?
Benzodiazepines (BZ's) and beta blockers
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Describe BZ's?
Enhance the action of GABA, GABA slows down neuron activity in 40% of the brain, enhance GABA by allowing more negative chloride ions into reduce responsiveness
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Descibe beta blockers?
Reduces activity of adrenaline and noradrenaline, blocks receptors in heart/lungs/blood vessels, causes fall in blood pressure and less stress on heart
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What are the advantages of drugs as a method of stress management?
Fast and effective, research support and high availability
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Name and describe 3 studies into drugs as a method of stress manageent?
Hidalgo (2001) found that BZ's more effective than antidepressants however Gelpin (1996) found that BZ's do not prevent PTSD, Hedblad (2001) found that low dose of beta blockers slows down artery clogging (due to stress) significantly
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What are the disadvantages of drugs as a method of stress management?
Dependency (BZ's) (physical with drawl symptoms such as headaches), tolerance (need to increase dose after time to remain effective), BZ's cause drowsiness, only target symptoms, beta blockers can cause type 2 diabetes (NICE 2006)
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Describe biofeedback?
Record physiological activity (eg heart rate/blood pressure), strategies tried to reduce activity and effect shown through feedback, strategies transferred to real life and used
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Evaluation of biofeedback?
Very effective, no more effective than muscle relaxation without feedback (Masters et al 1987), expensive
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Name 3 psychological methods of stress management?
Stress inoculation training (SIT), progressive muscle relaxation, hardiness training
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Describe SIT?
3 stages, conceptualization (analyse stressful situations), skills training and practice (client taught), real life application
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AO2 evaluation points for stress inoculation training?
Targets cause and symptoms, very effective, time and expense, difficult to follow through (motivation)
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Describe progressive muscle relaxation?
Muscle relaxing techiniques learned then practiced in real life
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AO2 evaluation points for muscle relaxation?
Effective, time consuming, takes up space, only targets symptoms
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Describe Hardiness training?
Identified signs of stress, analyse situations, take on challenges that we can cope with to give feeling of control
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AO2 evaluation points for hardiness training?
Importance of 3C's unclear, limited sample (white collar middle class), time and motivation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In what situation is each system used?

Back

SAM-short term stress, PAS-chronic stress

Card 3

Front

Describe the sympathomedullary pathway process?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the pituitary adrenal system process?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 3 stages of general adaptation syndrome (GAS)?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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