AQA Psychology- approaches 2015

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  • Created by: ltrc
  • Created on: 22-11-15 16:54
Introspection
The first study of the mind. The aim was to break up conscious awareness into basic structures of thought, images and sensations.
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Tabula Rasa
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Classical conditioning
Learning by association.
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What is Social learning theory?
Explanation of behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement
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What is operant conditioning?
Behaviour shaped and maintained by consequences.
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Positive reinforcement ( part of operant conditioning)
Receiving an award when a certain behaviour is performed.
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Negative reinforcement (part of operant conditioning)
avoiding something unpleasant. E.G- doing your homework to avoid detention
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Punishment (part of operant conditioning)
an unpleasant consequence of behaviour.
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Imitation ( part of social learning theory)
Copying others behaviour
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Identification (part of social learning theory)
When an observer associates and wants to be like their role model
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Modelling (part of social learning theory)
An observer imitating the behaviour of their role model. The role model precisely demonstrates a specific behaviour
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Vicarious reinforcement (part of social learning theory)
Reinforcement which is not directly experienced but occurs through observing someone else being reinforced for a behaviour.
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Mediational process (part of social learning theory)
Cognitive factors (thinking) that come between stimulus and response.
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Cognitive approach
Mental processes
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Internal mental process
Private operations of the mind such as perception
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Schema
A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing. Developed from experience.
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Inference
This is where cognitive psychologists draw conclusions about the way mental processes operate on the basis of observed behaviour.
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Cognitive neuroscience
The scientific study of biological structures that underpin cognitive process.
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Biological approach
A perspective that emphasises the importance of physical processes in the body such as genetics and neural function.
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Genes
Make up chromosomes and consist of DNA which codes the physical features of an organism. Genes are inherited.
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Genotype
The particular set of genes that a person processes.
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Phenotype
The characteristics of an individual determined by both genes and the environment.
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Evolution
The changes in inherited characteristics in a biological population over successive generations.
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Nervous system
consists of the CNS (central nervous system) and the PNS (peripheral nervous system)
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Central nervous system (CNS)
Consists of the brain and the spinal cord and is the origin of all complex commands and decisions
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Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Sends information to the CNS from the outside world. Transmits messages from the CNS to muscles and glands.
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Somatic nervous system
Transmits information from receptor cells in the sense organs tot he CNS. It also receives information from the CNS that directs muscles to act
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Autonomic nervous system
Transmits information to and from internal bodily organs. It has two main divisions. The sympathetic and parasympathetic
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Endocrine system
Instructs glands to release hormones directly into the bloodstream.
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Gland
An organ in the body that synthesises substances such as hormones.
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Hormones
Chemical substances that circulate in the bloodstream and only affect target organs. They are produced in large quantities but disappear quickly.
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Adrenaline
Hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Part of the human stress response system . It stimulates the heart rate.
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Neurons
Basic building blocks of the nervous system. These are nerve cells that process and transmit messages through electrical and chemical signals.
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Sensory neurons
Carry messages from the PNS to the CNS. Long dendrites and short axons
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Relay neurons
Connect sensory neurons to motor or other relay neurons. Short dendrites and short axons.
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Motor neurons
Connect the CNS to muscles and glands. Short dendrites and long axons
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Synaptic transmission
The process by which neighbouring neurons communicate with each other by sending chemical messages across the gap (synapse) that separates them
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Neurotransmitter
Brain chemicals released from synaptic vesicles that relay signals across the synapse from one neuron to another.
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Excitation
When a neurotransmitter such as adrenaline increases the positive charge of the post synaptic neuron. This increases the likelihood that the neuron will fire and pass on the electrical impulse,
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Inhibition
When a neurotransmitter e.g seratonin increases the negative charge of the post synaptic transmission. This decreases the likelihood that the neuron will fire and pass on the electrical impulse.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Blank Slate

Back

Tabula Rasa

Card 3

Front

Learning by association.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explanation of behaviour that includes both direct and indirect reinforcement

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Behaviour shaped and maintained by consequences.

Back

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Comments

KnightCode

Great Notes, Can't wait to use them in my Jan Mocks!
Thanks

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