AQA GCSE Science C1 notes

These flashcard will test your knowledge of everything in C1 Unit 1 Chemistry.

What do atoms contain?
Protons, neutrons and electrons
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What do elements produce when they react?
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What is a substance that is made of one type of atom called?
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What are atoms of each element represented by?
Symbols e.g O represents an atom of oxygen
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Atoms have a small central nucleus. What is the nucleus made up of?
Protons and neutrons and around which there are electrons
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Relative electrical charges of Proton, Neutron and Electron are?
Proton (+1), Neutron (0), Electron (-1)
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Why do atoms have no overall electrical charge?
Because the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in an atom.
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What is the atomic number?
The number of protons
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What is the mass number?
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons
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What are the elements in group 0 of the periodic table called?
Noble gases
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Why are noble gasses unreactive?
Because their atoms have stable arrangements of electrons
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When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds. What does this involve?
This involves giving, taking or sharing electrons to form ions or molecules
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In molecules the atoms are held together by covalent bonds. What do the atoms do in covalent bonds?
The atom share electrons
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What are the chemicals before the arrow called?
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What are the chemicals after the arrow called?
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Why are no atoms lost or made during a chemical reaction
Because atoms are never destroyed or created. So the mass of the products equals the mass of the recactants
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What is limestone mainly composed by?
The compound calcium carbonate
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How can calcium carbonate be decomposed?
By thermal decomposition (heating) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide
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How does calcium oxide produce calcium hydroxide?
Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in neutralisation of acids.
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Why is limewater used as a test for carbon dioxide?
As carbon dioxide is bubbled through it, it will turn 'milky' as the insoluble calcium carbonate if formed.
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Why is limestone damaged by acid rain?
Carbonated react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water.
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The main uses of limestone and its products
Limestone can be used as building material. Glass - heated with sand and soda. Cement - heated with clay in a kiln. Quicklime - Heated
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What are the advantages of making new quarries?
Jobs, improved roads, more money in the area leading to better facilities
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What are the disadvantages of making new quarries?
quarry can be an eyesore, dust from the quarry, noise from blasting, heavy ivory traffic
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What is a metal ore?
A mineral which contains a high enough percentage of a metal for economic extraction
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Metals can be mixed together to make what?
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How can metals that are less reactive than carbon be extracted?
They can be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon
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How can metals that are more reactive than carbon be extracted?
They are extracted by electrolysis of molten compounds
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How can copper be extracted from its ore?
By chemical processes that involve heat or electricity.
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What is phytomining?
Uses plants to absorb metal compounds when they grow. The plants are burned to produce ash that contains the metal compounds. The metals can then be extracted from the ash.
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What is bioleaching?
Uses bacteria that can live by using the energy of the bond between sulfur and copper. This seperates the metal from the ore
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What happens during electrolysis?
Positive ions move towards the negative electrode
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Aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon. Why are current methods of extraction expensive?
There are many stages in the process and large amounts of energy are needed
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Why should we recycle metals?
Extracting them uses limited resources and is expensive in terms of energy and effects on the environment.
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Why is cast iron useful?
Because it is strong in compression
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Why are steels alloys?
Since they are mixtures of iron with carbon.
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What are the properties for specific uses alloys can designed to have?
Low-carbon steels are easily shaped. High-carbon steels are hard. Stainless steels are resistant to corrosion.
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What are the properties that make copper useful for electrical wiring and plumbing?
A good conductor of electricity and heat. Can be bent but is hard enough to be used to make pipes. Can easily be joined together. Does not react with water. Is non-magnetic. Is antibacterial.
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What makes aluminium and titanium useful metals?
Low density and resistance to corrosion leads to its use fore greenhouses and window frames
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What is produced from plant material
Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethonol
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What do most of the compounds in crude oil consist of?
Molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons)
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What are saturated hydrocarbons called?
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What is the general formula of alkanes?
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Explain the process of fractional distillation
The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be seperated into fraction, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures.
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What happens during combustion to the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels?
They are oxised
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What can unsaturated hydrocarbons be used to make?
Polymers and ethene can be used to make ethanol.
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What do the products of cracking include?
Alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons called alkenes
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What is the general formula for alkenes
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What does '=' represent when showing unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules?
A double bond
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What does Alkenes react to which turns it from orange to colourless?
Alkenes react to bromine water, turning it from orange to colourles
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Why are longer chain hydrocarbons not useful as fuels?
They don't ignite easily. However they can be broken down into shorter chain hydrocarbons. This process is called cracking.
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What does cracking involve?
Cracking involves heating the hydrocarbons and passing the vapours produces over a hot catalyst
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What can alkenes be used to make?
Polymers such as poly(ethene) and poly(propene)
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What are the advantages of polymers?
They have many useful applications and new uses are being developed
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What are the disadvantages of polymers?
Many polymers are not biodegradable this can lead to problems with waste disposal.
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How can ethanol be produced?
By hydration of ethene with steam in the presence of a catalyst. By fermentation with yeast, using renewable resources
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What is the difference between hydration and fermentation?
Using ethane to make ethanol needs non-renewable crude oil as its raw material, whereas fermentation uses renewable plant material.
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What can be produced from vegetable oils?
Biodiesel fuel
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Why are vegetable oils important?
They are important foods and fuels as they provide a lot of energy. They also provide us with nutrients.
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What cab be used to produce emulsions?
Oils. As they do no dissolve in water.
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What do emulsions provide?
Better texture, appearance and coating ability.
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What do emulsifiers have?
They have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails which are charged.
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Explain emulsifiers
The tails dissolve in oil making tiny droplets. The surface of each droplet is made up of the heads. In this way they keep the droplets apart and stop them forming into two layers.
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What do vegetable oils that are unsaturated contain?
Double carbon-carbon bonds (C=C)
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How can double carbon-carbon bonds be detected?
By reacting bromine water. The coloured bromine water will decolourise if the oils are unsaturated.
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How can vegetable oils that are unsaturated be hardened?
By reacting them with hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst at about 60 degrees celsius
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Describe the hardening process
The hydrogenated oils have higher melting points so they are solids at room temperature, making them useful as spreads and in caked and pastries.
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What does the earth consist of?
A core, mantle. crust and is surrounded by the atmosphere
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What are tectonic plates?
The Earths crust and the upper part of the mantle are cracked into a number of large pieces
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What causes tectonic plates to move?
Convection currents within the Earths mantle driven by heat released by natural radioactive processes
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How much do tectonic plates move a year?
A few centimetres
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What do elements produce when they react?



Card 3


What is a substance that is made of one type of atom called?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are atoms of each element represented by?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Atoms have a small central nucleus. What is the nucleus made up of?


Preview of the front of card 5
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