AQA GCSE Chemistry 1a

Name the 3 parts of an atom and their charges
Protons: +1, Neutrons: 0, Electrons: -1
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Why are atoms neutral?
They have the same number of positive protons and negative electrons
2 of 50
Define an 'element'
A substance that consists of only one type of atom
3 of 50
The periodic table puts elements with ______________ together?
Similar properties
4 of 50
Why is the last column on the periodic table called 'Group 0' and not 'Group 8'?
Because helium has a full outer shell, so is in the last column, but the first electron shell can only hold 2 electrons, not 8 like the rest
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Why are inner shells filled up first with grouped elements?
Because they are a lower energy level, making the atom more stable
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What type of bonding happens between metals and non-metals?
Ionic bonding
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What is ionic bonding?
When electrons are transferred from one atom to another, making one positive and one negative, so they're attracted to eachother
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What type of bonding happens between non-metals?
Covalent bonding
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What is covalent bonding?
When two types of non-metal atoms share electrons
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What are covalently bonded atoms also known as?
11 of 50
Matter and energy can never be...?
Created or destroyed
12 of 50
What is limestone made of?
Calcium Carbonate
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What does calcium carbonate thermally decompose into?
Calcium Oxide and Carbon Dioxide
14 of 50
What products do you get if you react calcium carbonate with an acid?
A salt, carbon dioxide and water
15 of 50
What product do you get if you hydrate calcium oxide?
Calcium Hydroxide
16 of 50
Give one use of calcium hydroxide and why it is used for this
To neutralise acidic soil in fields, because it is alkaline
17 of 50
What will happen if limewater comes into contact with carbon dioxide?
It will form a white precipitate (go cloudy) because of the formation of calcium carbonate
18 of 50
Give three things limestone is used to make
Cement, mortar and concrete
19 of 50
What is a metal ore?
A rock with enough metal in to make it worthwhile extracting
20 of 50
In what 3 ways can metal be extracted from its ore?
Reduction, electrolysis or displacement
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To be extracted by reduction, the metal has to be lower than ________ in the reactivity series
22 of 50
How is a metal extracted if it's more reactive than carbon
Via electrolysis
23 of 50
Why aren't all metals extracted via electrolysis?
It's more expensive
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Why might electrolysis be used on a metal with low reactivity?
To purify it
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What is a displacement reaction?
Where a more reactive metal 'kicks out' a less reactive one
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Why is it important to recycle copper?
Because its supply is limited, and its demand is growing
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What is bioleaching?
Using bacteria to seperate copper from copper sulfide
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In bioleaching, where is the copper finally extracted from?
The leachate
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What is phytomining?
Extracting copper from soil using plants
30 of 50
Why are plants used to extract copper?
Because they can't use or get rid of the metal, so it builds up in their leaves
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What's the problem with both bioleaching and phytomining?
They're very slow
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Give four properties of metals
They're strong, bendable and good conductors of heat and electricity
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What are the properties of copper?
It's a good electrical conductor, is hard and strong, can be bent, and doesn't react with water
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What are the properties of aluminium?
It's corrosion-resistant and light, but isn't strong by itself
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What are the properties of titanium?
Like aluminium, it's light and corrosion resistant, but it is also very strong
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What are some problems with metals?
If metals corrode, they lose their strength and hardness, and can also get metal fatigue over time
37 of 50
Why is pure iron mostly impractical?
It's regular atom arrangement makes it too soft and bendy
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What alloy is iron often used to make?
Steel, by mixing it with a little carbon
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Why are alloys harder than pure metals?
The different sized atoms of different elements disrupt the regular arrangement, making it more difficult for layers to slide over eachother
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What is crude oil?
A mixture of hydrocarbons
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What is crude oil a type of?
Fossil fuel
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What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound of hydrogen and carbon
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What is a fraction?
A group of hydrocarbons with a similar chain length.
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How is crude oil separated into fractions?
By fractional distillation using a fractioning column
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What are hydrocarbons a type of?
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What properties do shorter hydrocarbon molecules have?
They are more runny, volatile and flammable
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What are crude oil fractions mostly used for?
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What are some problems with our use of crude oil fractions?
Crude oil is non-renewable, burning it releases carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, aswell as releasing sulfur to create sulfur dioxide, in addition to discharging soot and ash particles which help to cause global dimming
49 of 50
Name three other alternative fuels that are being developed
Ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen gas
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why are atoms neutral?


They have the same number of positive protons and negative electrons

Card 3


Define an 'element'


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


The periodic table puts elements with ______________ together?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why is the last column on the periodic table called 'Group 0' and not 'Group 8'?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


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