AQA GCSE Biology 2b

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What is an enzyme?
A chemical which speeds up chemical reactions in the body - a natural catalyst
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What are enzymes made of?
Long chains of amino acids, folded to produce a unique shape
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What is an active site?
A place on the surface of the enzyme which allows it to attach to the reactants to speed up their reaction
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What is the molecule that binds to the enzyme called?
The substrate
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What are the main three factors that affect how enzymes work?
Temperature, pH, and substrate concentration
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Why does temperature and pH affect enzymes?
Because they interfere with the bonds holding the enzyme together
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How does substrate concentration affect the rate of reaction?
It increases it, until the point of saturation
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What happens when an enzyme is denatured?
The active site is distorted, meaning the enzyme will no longer work
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What is the job of digestive enzymes?
To break down large molecules into small ones
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What is the job of amylase?
To break down starch into sugars
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Why do large molecules need to be broken down?
So they are small enough to be absorbed
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What is a competitive inhibitor?
An inhibitor which binds to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate
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What is a non-competitive inhibitor?
An inhibitor with a different shape to the reactant, which binds to a point on the enzyme which distorts the active site
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How can enzymes be produced industrially?
By using fermentation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are enzymes made of?

Back

Long chains of amino acids, folded to produce a unique shape

Card 3

Front

What is an active site?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the molecule that binds to the enzyme called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the main three factors that affect how enzymes work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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