AQA Chemistry - Physical Chemistry AS/A2

Isotope
Atoms of the same element with different mass number but the same number of protons
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First Ionisation Energy
About of energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions
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Relative Atomic Mass (Ar)
The average mass of an atom of an element on a scale where an atom of carbon-12 is 12
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Relative Molecular Mass (Mr)
The average mass of a molecule on a scale where an atom of carbon-12 is 12
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Avogadro's Constant (Equation)
No. Particles = No. Moles x Avogadro's Constant
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Avogadro's Constant (Value)
6.02 × 10^23
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Standard Mole Equation
n =m/Mr
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Concentration Equation
n = c v / 1000
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Ideal Gas Equation
pV = nRT
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Empirical Formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound
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Molecular Formula
The actual number of atoms of each element in a compound
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% Atom Economy
Atom Economy = Mr (of desired Products) x 100/ Mr (of all Reactants)
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Ionic Bonding
The electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions in a lattice
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Covalent Bonding
A single covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons, one being supplied from both atoms
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Dative Covalent Bond
A single dative covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons, both being supplied from one atom of the bond
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Metallic Bonding
The attraction between (the sea of) delocalised electrons and the positive metal ions arranged in a lattice
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Electronegativity
The Power of an atom to attract the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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Permanent Dipole
A dipole is caused by a polar bond causing a charge difference in the molecule due to the shift in electron density. There will be weak forces of electrostatic attraction between partial charges on neighbour molecules
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Induced Dipole/ Van Der Waal
They cause all atoms and molecules to be attracted to each other. They are temporary dipoles and are caused by shifts in the electron cloud effecting nearby atoms, causing attraction between them
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Hydrogen Bonding
Caused due to the highly covalent polarised bond between H and O,F or N. this partially positively charged H is then attracted to the lone pair on a O, F or N on another molecule
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Intermolecular Forces Strength Order
(1)Hydrogen Bonding (2) Permanent Dipole. (3) Van Der Waal
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

About of energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions

Back

First Ionisation Energy

Card 3

Front

The average mass of an atom of an element on a scale where an atom of carbon-12 is 12

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The average mass of a molecule on a scale where an atom of carbon-12 is 12

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

No. Particles = No. Moles x Avogadro's Constant

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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