AQA AS Dance

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What is meant by posture and alignment?
Good distribution of weight at rest and during activity. Having a good relationship between body parts to maintain the correct posture
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What is meant by core stability?
Maintaining a strong centre whilst moving
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What is strength/muscular endurance?
The force a performer can exert in a single muscle contraction to overcome external resistance
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What is stamina/cardiovascular endurance?
The performers ability to take in and utilise oxygen to be able to exercise at a steady rate for a long time
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What is flexibility?
The natural range of movement around a joint
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What is balance?
The body's ability to keep it's equilibrium when stationary or moving
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What is control?
Having an awareness of energy that is required to execute a movement to be ready for the next movement
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What is co-ordination?
A combination of the skills in balance, control of energy and accuracy in action
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What is kinaesthetic awareness?
Involves the perception of motion and position, a connection between the mind and body to improve performance
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What is focus?
Where the dancer is looking/facing and facial expressions
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What is musicality/timing/phrasing?
Having a sense of rhythm, using music for cues and understanding the music
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What is projection?
Throwing energy out of the body, allows for the dance to be more interesting for the audience
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What is emphasis?
Knowing when to accent moments in the dance to make it more thoughtful
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What is neuromuscular tension?
The connection between the mind and body which carries stress
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What are the effects of neuromuscular tension?
More injury than usual, imagining injury, pretending to be injured, lack of flexibility, loss of co-ordination, increase in heart rate and blood pressure
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What are symptoms of neuromuscular tension?
Loss of appetite, weight loss, depression, tiredness, digestion problems and nausea
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How to combat neuromuscular tension?
Change of environment, relaxation techniques, yoga, addressing issues
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What are the benefits of meditation?
Reduces stress, improves mental alertness, calms the mind, improves memory, slows aging
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How does caffeine have a negative effect on the body?
Racing heart, raises blood pressure, dilated pupils, addiction
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How does caffeine effect a dancers performance?
Sudden tiredness, less concentration, dehydration, withdrawal
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What happens in the body whilst you sleep?
Replenish and replaces cells, builds tissues, release of growth hormone, produces antibodies, fighting infection and relaxes muscles
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Why is hydration important?
Affects brain function and muscle activity as well as vigilance and alertness which prevents injury
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How does water help inside the body?
It supports internal activities of tissue cells and carry's nutrients and oxygen around the body eliminating waste products
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How can you avoid dehydration?
Drinking water at regular intervals, always drinking when exercising, replacing fluids after exercise, avoiding alcohol
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What are the effects of dehydration?
Fatigue, loss of concentration, poor reaction times, headaches, nausea, muscle cramps, light headedness
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Why is sweating important when exercising?
To maintain internal body temperature
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What may affect the amount that you sweat?
Clothing, exercise intensity, environment temperature, breathing pattern, humidity
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What are examples of carbohydrates?
Grains, rice, oats, corn, rye, pulses
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What do carbohydrates do?
They provide energy
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What does lack of carbohydrates cause?
Fatigue, weakness, headaches, irritability, poor co-ordination, nervousness
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What are examples of protein?
Meat, fish, eggs, dairy
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What does protein do?
Build up muscles in the body and tissue repair
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What does lack of protein cause?
Loss of muscle, illness
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What are examples of fat?
Dairy, meat, eggs, oily fish, cooking oils
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What does fat do?
Provides quick energy and carry vitamins
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What does too much fat cause?
Heart disease and high level of cholesterol in the blood
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What are examples of vitamins?
Fruit, veg, leaves, flowers, roots
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What are vitamins needed for?
Proper body functions and building of the immune system
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What does lack of vitamins lead to?
Bones softening, scurvy
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What can too much vitamins lead to?
Harm the eyes or upset the metabolism
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What are minerals found in?
Most food
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What are minerals needed for?
Producing enzymes and hormones which help to control functions in blood, bones and teeth
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What can a lack of minerals lead to?
lack of iron - anaemia, lack of iodine - low metabolic rate, energy loss, weight gain, lack of calcium - long term brittle bones
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How many calories does a dancer need a day?
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Why is eating foods high in sugar bad?
It causes a peak of glucose in the body before a fall below normal level which leads to fatigue and increased risk of injury
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When and what is best to eat on the day of a performance?
2 hours before allows enough digestion time and pasta or a meal containing carbohydrates for energy
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What are some common dance injuries?
Shin splints, achilles tendonitis, hip pain/bursitis
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What is shin splints?
Small fibres pulling away from the bone where the muscle attaches to the bone
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What causes shin splints?
Over pronation of the foot, excessive pointe work, repetitive use of foot flexors on hard surfaces
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How can you prevent shin splints?
Correct bad technique, avoiding excessive pointe work, limiting work on hard surfaces, stretching foot flexors
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What is achilles tendonitis?
Mild irritation to fraying of fibres of the achilles tendon
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What causes achilles tendonitis?
Overworking or overstitching the tendon, excessive use of plantar flexion, supination and pronation of the foot
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How can you prevent achilles tendonitis?
Ensuring correct position and alignment of foot and ankle and using heel lifts in shoes
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What can cause bursitis?
Foot pronation can cause and and hip to roll inwards, constant strain from movements on one leg
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How can you prevent bursitis?
Avoiding over-turnout, dancing on a suitable sprung floor, having good posture and alignment, strengthening of hip muscles
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What are the signs of injury or inflammation?
Heat, redness, pain, swelling, loss of function, increased blood flow
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What does RICED mean?
The treatment of an injury: Rest, Ice, Compress, Elevate, Diagnose
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Why do we use ice on an injury?
Frequent 10 minute applications of ice for the first 24-48 hours reduce swelling and pain
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Why do we compress and injury?
To control the swelling
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Why do we elevate an injury?
To drain the swelling
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What does HARM mean?
What to avoid after injury: heat, alcohol, running and massage
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Why do we not use heat on an injury?
In the first 48 hours it increases swelling
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Why do we not massage an injury?
Massage in the first 24-48 hours will increase bleeding and swelling
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What may be causes of injury?
Not being warmed up, anatomical causes, lack of knowledge, incorrect technique, incorrect teaching, not cooling down
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How can we prevent injury?
Having good technique, good muscle strength, warm up, cool down, good cardio-respiratory fitness, not smoking, goof nutrition, good environment
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What are physical and psychological factors of safe practice?
Correct learning of technique, strength and control, preparation before class, procedure at the end of class, response to energy demands, adequate hydration, adequate nutrition, lack of knowledge, confident, positive attitude, concentration
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What are external and environmental factors of safe practice?
Appropriate flooring, appropriate temperature, adequate ventilation, appropriate space, suitable dance wear, positive learning environment
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What exercises can we use to mobilise the feet and ankles?
Battement tendu, battement glisse, rise to bend
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Why do dancers need go mobility in the feet?
To aid safe take off and landing, absorbs shock, good alignment, aids with speed
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What is a joint?
When a bone meets a bone and movement is possible
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What is a ligament?
Band of tissue connecting and stabilising joints to prevent dislocation
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What is a tendon?
Tissue bundle which connects muscle to bone
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What is a cartilaginous joint?
Bones that are united by ligaments
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What is an example of a cartilaginous joint?
The spine
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What is a fibrous joint?
Bones that are joined by tough fibrous sheaths
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What is an example of a fibrous joint?
The skull
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What is a synovial joint?
The most moveable joint where the ends of bones are covered in cartilage and connected by a fibrous capsule with synovial membrane
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What structural features do synovial joints have?
Articular cartilage, synovial fluid in synovial capsule, surrounding ligaments
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What is kinaesthetic imagery?
Using feelings that accompany a movement so that when a movement is performed correctly it has a certain feel e.g. imagining the floor is covered in sharp pins when doing rises
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What is visual imagery?
Imagining an image of something when performing a movement e.g imagining a rainbow when using the arm above the head
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What is anatomical imagery?
Having an understanding of the body structure and having an image to trigger muscle response to the correct body alignment
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What is mental rehearsal?
Running a rehearsal of a performance in your head to release impulses and improves natural movement
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How can you develop interpretive skills?
Making emotional connections, including personal experiences in the dance, using empathy, using relevant questions, using imagery, mental rehearsal, showing off dancers, having full concentration and improving technical skills
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Why is a warm up important?
Avoid injury, increase in tissue flexibility, increased speed in messages from nerves to the brain, stronger focus, avoid lactic acid build up
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What happens during a warm up?
Heart rate increases, improved circulation, oxygen carried to muscles, internal body temperature raised, fluid at joints increases (improves shock absorbency), blood flow increases (muscles are more malleable), breathing rate increases, warm skin
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What happens if we don't warm up?
Strains or tears in muscles, joint pressure, lack of mental connection, lack of focus, cramps, stress on heart
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What is an aerobic activity?
An activity where oxygen is supplied to the muscles via the cardiorespiratory system
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What is an anaerobic activity?
An activity that does not require oxygen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is meant by core stability?


Maintaining a strong centre whilst moving

Card 3


What is strength/muscular endurance?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is stamina/cardiovascular endurance?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is flexibility?


Preview of the front of card 5
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