Approaches to Global Politics

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What has the historical, traditional view of international relations been?
State-centric
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What are the 4 key features of the state?
A defined territory. A permanent population. An efficient, sovereign government. The capacity to enter relations with other states.
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Which process has damaged the credibility of the state-centric model?
Globalisation
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Give examples of 4 non-state actors that have increased in significance on the global stage.
Any from: Terrorist groups, TNCs, NGOs, regional groups, IGOs.
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Where are 70% of the world's leading 200 TNCs based?
USA, Japan and Germany.
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How many TNCs are based in the developed world?
90%
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How much of world trade do TNCs account for?
70%
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Give an example of a TNC with an economy comparable to that of a state.
Either General Motors, the wealth of which roughly equates to the GDP of Denmark, or Wal-Mart, the wealth of which roughly equates to the GDP of Poland.
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How do TNCs exert political leverage?
They are flexible in terms of where they locate investment. States therefore aim to create conditions attractive to TNCs (such as low taxes and little regulation).
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Give ? advantages of TNCs.
???
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Give ? disadvantages of TNCs.
???
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What is the World Bank definition of an NGO?
'A private organisation that pursues activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services or undertake community development.'
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Give an example of an NGO and state its staff and membership numbers.
Greenpeace; 2.5 million members and 1,200 staff.
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Why are the views of NGOs often taken to be authoritative?
Experts and specialists are involved.
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What proportion of international aid is provided by NGOs?
15%
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Give 3 advantages of NGOs.
Counterbalance corporate power, challenging TNC influence. Promote the interests of people that have been disempowered by globalisation. Act as a moral force.
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Give 3 criticisms of NGOs.
Self-appointed groups with no democratic credentials. Make exaggerated claims to attract media attention. May compromise principles to maintain 'insider status'.
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What do realists claim state behaviour is driven by?
A 'wish to survive'.
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What do realists see as the dominant actor on the world stage?
The state.
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How do realists therefore interpret globalisation?
It was initiated by states in order to serve the interests of states. Other actors may only have influence as far as states allow.
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What do liberals see the role of the state as?
A referee to prevent the emergence of the chaos and brutality of the 'state of nature'; to preserve peace.
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How do liberals interpret globalisation?
A process that has contributed to the decline of the state. Power has shifted towards global forces such as the market and TNCs.
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How do liberals challenge the realist idea that states are separate, sealed entities?
Internal political and constitutional factors impact states' external behaviour; for example, democratic states are likely to maintain peace more effectively than non-democratic ones.
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Give 4 arguments that state sovereignty IS an outdated concept.
State borders have become permeable; ICT rev etc. Non-state actors have increased influence; esp. TNCs. Global problems require global solutions, giving rise to IGOs. Growing view that human rights are morally superior to right of state to be svrgn.
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Give 4 arguments that state sovereignty IS NOT an outdated concept.
'Borderless world' is exaggeration - more domestic trade than international. States remain dominant global power as have unique ability to control. Political globalisation has 'pooled' sovereignty, not eroded it. Nationalism still a potent force.
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What is 'internal sovereignty'?
Supreme authority within a state. This authority makes decisions that are binding to all citizens, groups and institutions within state borders.
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What is 'external sovereignty'?
Absolute and unlimited power as an actor on the world stage, implying the absence of a higher authority in external affairs.
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What is the realist belief in power politics based on? Give 2 assumptions.
People are inherently competitive and selfish. There is no authority higher than the state, so the state system operates in the context of international anarchy. (Egoism + anarchy = power politics)
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What are the 4 key areas of realist thinking?
State egoism and conflict. Statecraft and the national interest. Anarchy and its implications. Polarity, stability and the balance of power.
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What are the 3 key realist beliefs in terms of state egoism and conflict?
Realists accept Hobbes' 'state of nature'; international system is unpredictable and dangerous. States are the most important actors on global stage. Stage egoism is driving force of behaviour.
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What are the 3 key realist beliefs in terms of anarchy and its implications?
As states are autonomous, they must rely on their own resources as nobody else will assist them. Relationships between states are always characterised by suspicion and uncertainty. Conflict encouraged by states' incessant seeking of relative gains.
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How do realists view polarity, stability and the balance of power?
Preservation of peace is possible through balance of power. Therefore, a bipolar system is stable and there is reduced risk of conflict. Multipolarity is associated with instability and greater likelihood of war. Unipolarity = hegemonic stability.
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How has liberalism been important?
Dominant ideological force shaping Western political thought.
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What is the central theme of liberalism?
Harmony between competing interests.
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How do liberals view the state system?
The state system has been decentralised, and consequently there is scope for international cooperation and integration.
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Define 'cultural globalisaton'.
(See notes for full def.) Info, customs and images have spread, 'flattening out' differences between regions. Linked to economic globalisation and ICT revolution.
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What are the two (opposite) implications of cultural globalisation?
Cultural globalisation generates homogenisation. Cultural globalisation also causes polarisation and increases diversity due to 'cultural backlash' and the rise of cultural/ethnic/religious movements.
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Define 'economic globalisation'.
Domestic economies have interlocked, giving rise to a single global economy/marketplace.
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Define 'political globalisation'.
The increasing significance of intergovernmental institutions.
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What is an intergovernmental organisation?
A body that exerts influence within an international area comprising several states.
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What are the two forms of transnational political organisation?
Supranational, wherein sovereignty is sacrificed, and intergovernmental, wherein sovereignty is retained.
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Give an example(s) of supranationalism and intergovernmentalism.
Supranationalism: UN R2P, European Commission, European Parliament, European Court of Justice, European Central Bank. Intergovernmentalism: European Council, most components of the United Nations
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How is political globalisation considered in comparison to cultural and economic globalisation?
Lags behind significantly; the latter two have been more powerful forces in shaping the globalised world.
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How do hyperglobalists portray globalisation?
A set of revolutionary cultural, political and economic processes, with particular emphasis on the information and communication technology revolution, the rise of a single global economy and the availability of globally accessible commodities.
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Do hyperglobalists have a positive or negative attitude towards the impacts of globalisation?
Positive; they believe globalisation contributes to economic dynamist and growing prosperity.
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Give three ways in which hyperglobalism has been criticised.
It exaggerates the extent to which policymakers are dominated by economic and technological forces. The 'end of sovereignty' is a myth; sovereignty 'pooled', not diminished. Threats of terrorism etc. call for increased state action - security
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Why do globalisation sceptics deny that economic globalisation is significant?
More trade happens within borders than across them.
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How do globalisation sceptics believe the theory has been exploited?
Globalisation used by politicians and theorists to advance a market-orientated economic agenda.
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What is the realist view of globalisation?
Realists align with globalisation sceptics, seeing it as increased economic interdependence rather than a single global economy. State still dominant actor. Globalisation created by states for their benefit. Believe mutual vulnerability has resulted.
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What is the liberal view of economic globalisation?
Liberals adopt a positive view towards economic globalisation as it allows resources to be drawn towards their most profitable use, resulting in prosperity for all.
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Give two social and political benefits of globalisation, as perceived by liberals.
The spread of information and values widens opportunities for all. The spread of market capitalism is associated with the spread of liberal democracy, as economic freedom brings about political freedom.
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Why do neo-Marxists disapprove of globalisation? (1 feature with 2 consequences)
They condemn the emergence of a global capitalist system as it has resulted in growing polarisation between rich and poor and the weakening of democratic ability due to the rise of corporate power.
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Give three arguments for the notion that economic globalisation promotes prosperity and opportunity for all.
The market is only reliable means of creating wealth -draws resources to most profitable use. Game of winners & winners; rich get richer, poor get less poor due to TNC opportunities, specialisation etc. Economic freedom promotes other freedoms.
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Give three arguments against the notion that economic globalisation promotes prosperity and opportunity for all.
Increased inequality-globalisation benefits TNCs/RICs at expense of poor (neocolonial). Democracy 'hollowed out' as states focus on attracting TNC investment-deregulation, welfare reduction. Consumerism-> greed, dissatisfaction-percieved poverty.
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Give three arguments that globalisation is producing a global monoculture.
Homogenisation in terms of language, celebrities, brands. Americanisation has occurred. Global liberalism has spread - particularly free market capitalism, human rights and liberal democracy.
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What percentage of Internet traffic uses English?
50%
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Give three arguments that globalisation is not producing a global monoculture.
Globalisation has increased diversity - the West is influenced by non-Western religion, food, sport. etc. 'Glocalisation' - adaption to local circumstances (e.g Al Jazeera network). Cultural polarisation has taken place - clash of civilisations.
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Give three arguments that globalisation is a force for good.
Democratic peace theory; cooperation and peace promoted by globalisation. Globalisation is the surest way to reduce poverty and inequality. Globalisation has been key to growth of NICs such as China, India, Asian Tigers.
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Give three arguments that globalisation is not a force for good.
Core and periphery model-rich states benefit, poor states lose out. Interdependence will sour relations rather that sweeten them as competition increases and nationalism resurges. Associated w inequality - rural-urban, corporate power, deregulation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the 4 key features of the state?

Back

A defined territory. A permanent population. An efficient, sovereign government. The capacity to enter relations with other states.

Card 3

Front

Which process has damaged the credibility of the state-centric model?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give examples of 4 non-state actors that have increased in significance on the global stage.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where are 70% of the world's leading 200 TNCs based?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

estheryeates

this was so helpful! thankyou you are basically my idol

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