Approaches to Work Motivation

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What is motivation? - Locke and Latham, 1990
The internal force that drives an employee to action as well as the external factors that encourage that action.
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Components of motivation - Arnold et al., 2005
Direction, Effort, Persistence
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Content Theories of Motivation
Causes which motivate employees. Concerned with motives and goals. e.g. Hierarchy of needs theory, two-factor theory, ERG theory, theory of needs
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Process Theories of Motivation
Concerned with the processes which influence the way in which motivated behaviour is channelled e.g. equity theory, expectancy theory, goal-setting theory
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The Hierarchy of Needs Theory - Maslow (1954/1971)
Based on psychological needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem needs
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Hierarchy of Needs Theory Evaluation
Little empirical evidence, individual differences, cultural differences, generalizability
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Two-Factor Theory - Herzberg (1966/1974)
Motivator and hygiene factors
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Motivator Factors
Leads to satisfaction and need for personal growth e.g. achievement, recognition, responsibility, promotion.
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Hygiene Factors
Leads to dissatisfaction and how the work environment can arouse bad feelings e.g. pay and benefits, company policy, relationship with colleagues, supervision, job security, work conditins
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Two-Factor Theory Evaluation
A factor may not be exclusively motivator or hygiene, does not account for individual differences, assumes satisfaction = motivation, based in white collar jobs, little empirical support
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ERG Theory - Alderfer (1972)
Existence - Physiological and security needs. Relatedness - Interpersonal and social relationships. Growth - Self-actualisation needs e.g. personal development
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Theory of Needs - McClelland (1985)
Need for Achievement - desire to reach goals and accomplish tasks. Need for Power - desire to have impact and to have control over environment. Need for Affiliation - desire to form strong interpersonal ties and relations with other people.
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Equity Theory - J.S. Adams (1963)
Based on the perception of fairness, their evaluation of the ratio of their outcomes and inputs with their colleagues e.g. payment equity
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Resolution of Inequity
Change outcomes/inputs, rationalise inequity, ensure equitable pay, ensure participative decision making, leave the organisational situation
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The Expectancy Theory - Vroom (1964)
Effort - employee believes that effort will result in acceptable performance. Performance - employee believes that acceptable performance will produce desired reward. Reward - employee values the reward
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Expectancy Theory Evaluation - Van Eerde and Thierry (1996)
Theory does not work where any of outcomes has negative valence, good prediction for behaviour, self-reported measures have been poorly constructed, compared diff people with each other rather than comparing outcomes between same person
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Goal-Setting Theory - Locke and Latham (1990)
Concerned with the relationships among goals, intentions and task performance. 4 functions of goals: regulate effort, have an energizing function, impact positively on persistence, fosters strategies.
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Applying Goal-Setting Theory
SMART goals, simplify goals, follow-up on goals progress and completion
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Applying Cont.
Coach - support with effective coaching. Feedback - provide regular constructive feedback. Implement Reward System - Monetary/promotion, recognition, social enhancements e.g. time off
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Card 2

Front

Direction, Effort, Persistence

Back

Components of motivation - Arnold et al., 2005

Card 3

Front

Causes which motivate employees. Concerned with motives and goals. e.g. Hierarchy of needs theory, two-factor theory, ERG theory, theory of needs

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Concerned with the processes which influence the way in which motivated behaviour is channelled e.g. equity theory, expectancy theory, goal-setting theory

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Based on psychological needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem needs

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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