Approaches to History

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What has class identity retained?
Social perspective
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What has gender identity retained?
Focus on women
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What is the topic of paragraph one?
Marxist historians
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Who was the trailblazer for Marxist history?
Georges Lefebvre
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When did Lefebvre write?
1939
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What did Lefebvre look at?
The bourgeoisie and peasantry
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What did Lefebvre argue?
That all classes combined under the leadership of the aristocracy to overthrow the monarchy
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How was Lefebvre's argument linked to Marx?
Thesis and antithesis
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What other two factors of Lefebvre's work were Marxist?
Inevitability and economics
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Who wrote 'the age of revolution'?
Eric Hobsbawm
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When did Hobsbawm write?
1962
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What did Hobsbawm emphasise?
Conflict between old regime and 'rising new social forces'
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What did Hobsbawm argue created unity?
Classical liberal thought
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Who is the final Marxist historian?
Alfred Soboul
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When did Soboul write?
1982
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What did Soboul emphasise as an indicator of class?
Economics
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How did Soboul summarise the revolution?
As a conflict between the relations of production and the character of productive forces
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What does Soboul show?
That general trends do not account for all historians
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What is paragraph 2 on?
Revisionist
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What did the revisionists say Marxism encouraged?
Twisting facts to fit theories
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Who is the early revisionist?
Alfred Cobban
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When did Cobban write?
1964
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What did Cobban focus on?
Difficulty of assigning class
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What did Cobban say clear cut classes resulted in?
A generalised view rather than specific analysis
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How else did Cobban undermine Marxism?
Said economics not fundamental to determining class
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Who was more typical of the second half of the 20thC?
Cobban
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Why was Cobban more typical?
Increase of social and cultural sources as well as political ones
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Who is the last class historian?
Francois Furet
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When did Furet write?
1981
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What criticisms did Furet put forward?
Similar to Cobban
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Why is Furet significant?
Demonstrates impact of politics on historians
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How does Furet show this?
Says he was writing at a time when Soviet totalitarianism was criticised by both sides
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What does this explain about early thinkers of Marxism?
Early 20thC saw successful 'Marxist' revolution and growth in power of state - encouraged Marxist view of history
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What does paragraph 3 look at?
Early gender identity
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How does paragraph 3 link to previous paragraphs?
Continued emphasis on women
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Who was the first to take a gender perspective?
Joan B. Landes
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When did Landes write?
1982
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What did Landes state at first?
That she was taking a feminist perspective
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What does Landes look at?
How women were politically silenced during the French revolution
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What theory does Landes make use of in her argument?
The separate spheres theory
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Why does this theory make her argument redundant?
Later historians have shown it to be too simplistic
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What does Landes' argument reflect?
Second wave feminism
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What is paragraph 4 on?
Recent gender historians
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Who is the first historian in paragraph 4?
Olwen Hufton
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When did Hufton write?
1992
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What did Hufton argue?
That women act on own volition not because of enforced societal roles
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What did Hufton say was a result of the separate spheres theory?
Generic, theoretical women
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Who is the final historian?
Lisa DiCaprio
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When did DiCaprio write?
2007
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What did DiCaprio focus on?
Women and state in terms of welfare policy - how they were shapers as well as receivers
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How did DiCaprio show that women were politically active?
Standing up for their rights
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What rights did DiCaprio mean?
Higher wages and better working conditions
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What wider shift in gender thought does this show?
Move from a view of male suppression to a consideration of nuances of gender relations
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Card 2

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What has gender identity retained?

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Focus on women

Card 3

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What is the topic of paragraph one?

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Card 4

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Who was the trailblazer for Marxist history?

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Card 5

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When did Lefebvre write?

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